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[双语互译] 2019-03-08 外交部长王毅两会记者会

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#在这里2019-03-15 李克强总理两会记者会 Premier Li Keqiang Meets the Press 15 March 2019 2019年3月15日上午十三届全国人大二次会议闭幕后,国务院总理李克强在人民大会堂三楼金色大厅会见采访十三届全国人大二次会议的中外记者并回答记者提出的问题。以下为李克强总理记者会实录: The Second Session of the 13th National People’s Congress held a press conference at the Great Hall of the People on 15 March 2019. Premier Li Keqiang met with Chinese and foreign reporters and answered their questions at the invitation of Spokesperson Mr Zhang Yesui. 张业遂: 各位媒体朋友,女士们、先生们,大家上午好。今天我们非常荣幸地邀请李克强总理同大家见面,并回答大家的提问。有请李总理。 李克强: 首先,感谢记者朋友们为中国两会报道所付出的辛劳。记者会时间有限,就请提问吧。 路透社记者: 总理你好。去年,中国采取了一系列措施来放松货币条件,中国还加大了减税降费的力度,今年中国表示将进一步放宽货币条件,将进一步减税降费,还要加大基础设施的投资。请问,中国经济面临的问题是否比之前预想的更为严重?如果经济放缓继续持续下去,中国是否会考虑采取更加有力的举措?包括取消房地产限制和降低基准利率等? Reuters: Last year China took a number of measures to ease monetary conditions. China also cut taxes and fees. This year China is promising more monetary easing, more tax cuts and more infrastructure spending. Are China’s economic problems bigger than previously thought? And if the economic slowdown doesn’t stop, would China consider taking more aggressive measures such as lifting property curbs and cutting benchmark interest rates? 李克强: 这位记者朋友喜欢单刀直入,那我也开诚布公。中国经济确实遇到了新的下行压力,现在世界经济都在放缓,就在这一个多月期间,几大国际权威机构都在调低世界经济增长的预期。中国适度调低增速预期目标,用的是区间调控的方式。既和去年经济增速相衔接,也表明我们不会让经济运行滑出合理的区间。可以说给市场发出的是稳定的信号。 Premier Li: You went straight to the point in your question and I will not beat about the bush. It is true that China’s economy has encountered new downward pressure against a larger backdrop of slower global economic growth. In the past month or so, several major international organizations have adjusted downward their forecast for global growth this year. We have adjusted downward, as appropriate, our projected economic growth target for 2019, and set it at a target range. This is compatible with the GDP growth rate we achieved last year. It is also consistent with our determination to prevent major economic indicators from sliding out of the proper range. By this way, we have sent a message of stability to the market. 去年,在以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导下,以习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想为指导,全国上下奋力拼搏,在推进供给侧结构性改革的进程中,面对国际贸易保护主义抬头的背景,我们能实现6.6%的增速的确是来之不易。总量达到90万亿,在这个基础上,今年预计增长6%-6.5%,这是高基数、大总量上的增长,可以说本身就是进。 Last year, under the strong leadership of the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core and guided by Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, people across China made united efforts to advance the supply-side structural reforms, and we achieved a 6.6 percent GDP growth, which was no mean feat. Against the backdrop of growing trade protectionism in the international environment, China’s GDP aggregate reached 90 trillion RMB yuan. Our projected target for GDP growth this year is 6-6.5 percent. It will be a growth on top of a very large base figure. Keeping steady growth of China’s economy in itself is important progress. 当然,面对新的下行压力,要有有力举措。一种办法是搞量化宽松,超发货币、大规模提高赤字率,所谓“大水漫灌”,萝卜快了不洗泥,一时可能有效,但会带来后遗症,所以不可取。我们还是要坚持通过激发市场活力,来顶住下行压力。前些年,我们也遇到下行压力,我们采取的就是激发市场活力的措施,因为市场活力增强了,发展的动力必然增强。 We must take strong measures to cope with the current downward economic pressure. One possible option is to resort to quantitative easing, including excessive money supply and a much higher deficit-to-GDP ratio, flooding the economy with liquidity. Such an indiscriminate and expedient approach might work in the short run, but may also lead to future problems. Hence, it is not a viable option. Our choice is to energize market players to counter the downward pressure. We encountered economic downturn in the past several years, and the measures we took were aimed at boosting the vitality of the market, which generated stronger dynamism for development. 现在中国市场主体已经超过1亿户,把他们的活力激发出来,这个力量可以说是难以估量的,我们还是要政贵有恒,继续推进减税降费、简政,培育新动能、放宽市场准入,营造公平竞争环境等一系列的措施,为市场松绑,为企业腾位,为百姓解忧。把他们的创造力释放出来,我们一定能够保持经济运行在合理区间,而且推动高质量发展。 China now has over 100 million market entities. When their vitality is fully unleashed, the energies that could be created would be incalculable. We must keep our policies stable and ensure their continuity. We will continue to cut taxes and fees, streamline administration, foster new drivers of growth, broaden market access and level the playing field for all market players. In this way, we will be able to lift the curbs on the market, free up space for companies and resolve concerns for our people. We will generate tremendous creativity in this process. And this will also put us in a strong position to keep major economic indicators within a proper range and achieve high-quality development. 当然,今年不确定的因素不少,我们还要有更多的应对准备,我们留有了政策空间。比如我们今年提高赤字率0.2个百分点,没有超过国际上说的所谓3%的警戒线。而且我们还可以运用像存款准备金率、利率等数量型或价格型工具,这不是放松银根,而是让实体经济更有效地得到支持。不管发生什么样的新情况,我们都会立足当前、兼顾长远,保持中国经济稳定,保持中国经济长期向好趋势不变,这都是很重要的。中国经济会始终成为世界经济的一个重要稳定之锚。谢谢。 We also need to take strong measures to cope with growing uncertainties that we face this year. We have policies in reserve for that purpose. For example, we raised the deficit ratio for this year by 0.2 percentage point to 2.8 percent, which is below the international warning line of 3 percent. In addition, we can also resort to quantitative or pricing tools like required reserve ratios and interest rates. We are not going for monetary easing, but trying to provide effective support to the real economy. Facing new circumstances, we will stay firmly grounded in China’s realities and take a long-term view. We will do our best to keep China’s economic growth stable and maintain the sound momentum of the economic development for the long run. China’s economy will remain an anchor of stability for the global economy. 财新周刊记者: 我想提问关于减税降费的问题,中国政府出台了一系列关于减税降费的举措,不少企业家反映企业税收依然很重,今年政府出台了更大规模的减税降费,我想请问您认为企业能得到实惠吗?财政可持续吗?谢谢。 Cai Xin: The Chinese government took a series of steps to reduce taxes and fees. However, some business people still feel that the tax burden on companies is quite heavy. This year the government plans to implement deeper tax and fee cuts. I would like to ask if you think real benefits can be truly delivered to companies, and is our country’s public finance sustainable? 李克强: 近几年我们利用营改增等载体,平均每年给企业减税降费一万亿元,三年三万亿元。应该说,我们减税的规模是比较大的,今年下决心要进行更大规模的减税降费。把增值税和单位社保缴费率降下来,减税降费红利近两万亿元。这可以说是应对当前经济下行压力的一个十分重要的关键性举措。 Premier Li: In the past several years, we worked to replace business tax with value-added tax. For the past three years, we cut taxes by three trillion yuan, or one trillion on an average annual basis. This is fairly large-scale tax reduction. This year we will implement larger-scale tax and fee cuts. We will make reductions in the VAT and employers’ contributions to the basic pension insurance scheme. This will deliver a dividend of as much as two trillion yuan to companies. It is an important measure for countering the downward pressure. 这样做有利于公平,因为按照规则各类所有制企业普遍能从减税费中受惠,而且政策效率很高,一竿子插到底,直达市场主体。4月1日就要减增值税,5月1日就要降社保费率,全面推开。我看还没有其他办法比这种办法给企业带来的感受更公平、更有效。 This is also a fair and efficient policy option. The same rules will be enforced and companies under all types of ownership will stand to benefit as equals. The policy will reach all market players directly. The plan is to cut VAT rates starting from 1 April, and the social insurance contribution rate from 1 May. No other way may work as fairly and efficiently as this one for companies. 今年更大规模的减税降费实际上是一项重大改革和重要抉择。之前我们反复测算,有多种方案,有一种就是今后几年每年把增值税率降一个百分点,但在当前情况下企业可能感受不深。所以我们下决心把占增值税总量近60%的制造业等行业的增值税率明显降低3个百分点。把建筑业等部分行业降1个百分点,其他所有行业也确保只减不增。由于税制的原因可能在推进过程当中有些行业抵扣少了,税收有增加的可能,我们也做了认真的准备,就是对他们加大抵扣的力度,用打补丁的办法,并对所有的中小微企业实行普惠性减税,确保所有行业税负只减不增。对基本养老保险单位缴费率,我们还明确,可以从原规定的20%降到16%。 Our larger-scale tax and fee cuts are a very important reform measure and a crucial decision. Before we took this decision, we did thorough calculations. In the past, there were several different plans under consideration. For example, one of the plans was to cut the VAT rates by just one percentage point each year in the following several years. But that may not bring as many benefits to companies as the current plan. Under the current plan, the VAT rate for the manufacturing sector will be cut by three percentage points. The manufacturing sector accounts for close to 60 percent of all VAT. For construction and related sectors, the VAT rate will be cut by one percent point. For other industries, we will also work to ensure that the tax burden on companies will only go down, not up. Due to the setup of the tax code, with fewer deductions, the tax payments of some sectors may somewhat increase. To address this problem, we will make further tax deductions. In this process, the tax burden on all micro, small and medium-sized companies will be significantly eased. All in all, as I said before, taxes levied on companies will only come down instead of going up. Moreover, employers’ contributions to the basic pension insurance scheme will be cut from 20 percent to 16 percent. 减税是要减收的,我们今年安排财政支出和GDP增长同步,确保民生重点领域、三大攻坚战支出只增不减。那么人们会问你钱从哪里来,赤字只提高了0.2个百分点,填不上这个窟窿怎么办?我们的办法是,政府要过紧日子,不仅要压缩一般公共预算的支出,而且增加特定的金融机构和央企上缴利润、进入国库,并把长期沉淀的资金收回。通过这些举措,我们筹集了1万亿元资金。我们还要求地方政府也要挖潜,把自己的功课做足。对中西部地区,我们将给予适当的转移支付支持。大规模减税降费,是要动政府的存量利益,要割自己的肉。所以我说这是一项刀刃向内、壮士断腕的改革。 Cutting taxes means smaller fiscal revenues. This year, our fiscal spending will grow in tandem with the GDP growth rate. We also need to ensure that government spending in key areas related to people’s lives and in fighting the three critical battles will increase. Then it begs the question: where does the money come from? Only increasing the budget deficit ratio by 0.2 percent point is not enough to make up for the shortfall. The answer is: the government will tighten its belt and cut back on its general expenditures. At the same time, certain state-owned financial institutions and enterprises directly under the central government will be asked to turn in a larger share of their profits to the state coffers. The central government will also take back those fiscal funds that have long stayed unused. Through these means, we have put together one trillion yuan. Local governments also need to do their homework and contribute, but for localities in the central and western regions, transfer payments from the central government will be made. Digging into the government’s own revenue stock for slashing taxes and fees would be like the government turning the blade of a knife to itself, which requires significant self-sacrifice. That is why I said this is a key reform that requires exceptional courage and determination. 刚才记者问,这样做财政可持续吗?这我们也是认真算过账的。我们是给制造业等基础行业、给带动就业面最大的中小企业明显减税,这实际上是“放水养鱼”、培育财源。我们前几年营改增过程中起先也是财政减收的,但后来税基扩大了,财政收入增长了。现在看,我们还要调整国民收入分配结构,这也是一项改革。从趋势看,应该给实体经济、给企业让利,让他们在国民收入分配的蛋糕中的比例更大,这样能更多带动就业,让就业人群增加收入。为此,政府就要过紧日子,就要让利,政府的存量利益也要动,得罪人也要动,让利于企业,让利于民,这样财政才更可持续,反过来讲可能就要打问号了。我们这样做,不是说在预支未来,恰恰是在培育未来。 You asked if our public finance is sustainable. Let me tell you that the government has done its due diligence. We are going to cut VAT rates for the manufacturing and other basic sectors. And we are going to make things much easier for small and medium-sized companies, the largest providers of jobs in our country. They will see their taxes meaningfully reduced. This will create a more enabling environment for companies, and also help to expand our tax sources. When we started with the VAT reform several years ago, government revenue also declined. However, it didn’t take long for it to increase again, as the tax base expanded. This is also a reform that will make adjustments to the structure of our national income distribution. By expanding the share of companies therein, we will create more jobs and put more money in our people’s pockets. To do this, the government must live on a tight budget, and let companies benefit more. We must dig into the government’s own pockets, even if this involves offending people. This is actually helpful for keeping our public finance sustainable. As a matter of fact, our ability to keep China’s public finance sustainable may be called into question if the above measures are not taken. Such measures are not taking an overdraft on our future, but nurturing a better tomorrow. 现在可以说是真金白银已经备好了,有关部门和各级政府都要去落实,决不能让政策打白条,更不允许变换花样乱收费来冲击减税降费的成效,还是要让企业、让市场主体切实感受到更大规模减税降费的实实在在效果。谢谢。 So, these heavyweight policies and measures are all set, relevant departments and governments at all levels must fully deliver those policies and measures. There must be no lip service. We will let market players test their actual effects and there must be no arbitrary charges levied in disguised forms. Our end goal is to deliver concrete benefits to companies and market entities. 韩国东亚日报记者: 朝美领导人河内会晤谈崩之后,外界认为朝鲜有可能正在准备恢复发射火箭,朝鲜半岛局势下一步发展还是存在不确定性,中方对此如何看?第二个问题就是,中方作为和朝鲜保持战略性沟通和高层来往的邻邦,为了劝和促谈,化解朝美之间的分歧,目前在发挥什么样的建设性作用?谢谢。 The Dong-A Ilbo: The Hanoi summit between the DPRK and the United States broke down and after that there are analyses arguing that there is a possibility for the DPRK preparing for resuming rocket launch. And there are still uncertainties on the Korean Peninsula situation. How does the Chinese side see the kind of situation on the Peninsula? Another question is, China has stayed in strategic communication and exchanged high-level visits with the DPRK and has been promoting dialogue between the DPRK and the United States and working to ease differences between the two parties. What constructive role is China playing in this respect? 李克强: 半岛问题可以说是错综复杂、由来已久,解决起来不可能一蹴而就。一段时间以来,大家都比较关注朝美领导人河内会晤。会晤后,双方都表示要继续接触。所以我认为,接触总比不接触好。我们还是要保持耐心,要抓住机遇,特别是当前显现出的积极因素,推动对话,特别是朝美对话,实现大家都希望得到的成果。中国始终坚持半岛无核化,希望保持半岛的和平稳定,这个立场从来没有改变过。解决好半岛问题,不仅对北南双方,对地区、对世界都有利,谢谢。 Premier Li: The Korean Peninsula issue is a long-standing and complicated one. It cannot be resolved overnight. Much attention has been paid to the Hanoi summit between the DPRK and the United States. Following the summit, both sides expressed readiness to stay engaged with each other, and having such kind of engagement is better than no contact at all. I believe it is important for all parties concerned to stay patient, seize opportunities and the positive factors that have emerged, and promote dialogue, especially dialogue between the DPRK and the United States, to move toward outcomes that we all would like to see. China is committed to a denuclearized Korean Peninsula. We hope there will be peace and stability there. And this has been our consistent position. A proper settlement of the Peninsula issue is in the interest of both the North and the South. It is also in the regional and global interest. 中国新闻社、中国新闻网记者: 我们注意到近几年中国政府一直在着力改善民生,但是在民生领域也会听到一些抱怨。明年就要全面建成小康社会了。除了脱贫之外,民生领域我们能有哪些实实在在的期待?政府对解决民生问题究竟是怎么考虑的? China News Service: The Chinese government has been taking measures to improve living standards over the years. However, there are still complaints about some issues concerning quality of life. Next year we will complete the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects. So in addition to poverty alleviation, what concrete progress can we look forward to in all these livelihood areas and what plan does the government have to improve people’s well-being? 李克强: 你问的问题很大,因为民生本身就是天大的事情,要做的事情很多。我们要在发展经济的过程当中持续地改善民生,抓住民生的一些重点、难点问题,一件一件去做。现在大数据显示,“一老一小”的问题,就是养老服务、托幼服务有困难。这个确实应该引起我们更高的重视。 Premier Li: You asked a fairly big question. Any issue related to people’s lives is of paramount importance and there are still a lot of things in this respect the government must do. We will continue to improve people’s well-being in the process of developing the Chinese economy. We must put our focus on these key areas and major difficulties faced by our people. A big data survey suggests that issues related to aged and child care are still commonly felt difficulties for our people and this must draw closer attention from the government. 现在中国老龄人口,如果60岁以上算,近2.5亿人,65岁以上有1.7亿人,6岁以下儿童有上亿人,他们的服务问题涉及到绝大多数家庭,但是我们这方面的服务供给是不足的。全面实施两孩政策以后,托幼难更突出了。养老机构现在能提供的服务,每百人只有三个床位。有的大城市统计,可能要到90岁以后才能等到养老床位。我说这句话的意思是,现在我们即便继续加大养老机构、多功能幼儿园发展的力度,但还是跟不上需求增长的速度。 The number of senior citizens at the age of 60 or above in China has reached 250 million, the number of those at or above 65, 170 million, and there are up to 100 million children in China below six years old. Services targeting these populations are still lacking, and they affect most of the Chinese families. The difficulty of insufficient child care services is particularly acute after the implementation of the two-child policy. When it comes to aged care facilities, on average, there are only three beds for every 100 senior citizens. Some surveys suggest that in big cities, one would have to wait until 90 years old before he or she can get a place in a nursing home. The increase of such facilities is lagging behind the growing needs for them. 怎么办?我到一些地方去调研,发现已经有好的经验,就是重点发展社区的养老托幼服务,这样可以做到就近可及、普惠公平,只要安全可靠,大家是欢迎的。所以,我想还是要创新机制,对接群众需求,发挥社会力量作用,加大政府扶持力度。比如说,提供公租房,让那些从事助餐助行、日间照料、康复、老年大学等的社会力量免费使用,还可以给予水电气的费用减免,可以减税免税,因为他们实际上也是帮政府共同解决民生之难。社区工作人员、政府的有关部门要保障公平准入,把主要的力量放在公正监管上,确保这些服务是安全可靠的,对那些违规的要坚决逐出市场,让老人、孩子、家庭都放心安心。老年人能安度晚年,孩子们有幸福的童年,那就有千家万户幸福愉悦的家庭,也可以让青年人或者中青年人有更多的精力去就业创业。当然,民生方面的问题还很多,我们会抓住重点难点,尽力而为、量力而行去解决。谢谢。 How does the government plan to address this acute problem? In my local inspection trips, I have seen that some good experience has been gained in this respect, that is, to vigorously develop community-based providers of such services. If there can be accessible, quality services that are safe, reliable, and beneficial to all, they will certainly be very popular among the targeted populations. In this respect, the government needs to develop innovative mechanisms to better match market supply with our people’s demand. The government also needs to provide policy support. For example, we may provide public rental housing units for free to private operators as venues of facilities for providing assisted meal, assisted mobility, day care, rehabilitation, and even open senior colleges. The government may also provide tax exemption or tax-free treatment for these service providers in terms of their expenses on water, electricity and natural gas. These entities are all working together with the government to address our people’s actual needs. The main job of community-level officials and competent departments is to ensure fair market access and enhance oversight so that these services will be both safe and reliable, and those who break the rules will be driven out of the market. In this way, we will be able to keep our senior citizens, our children and all families reassured. When our senior citizens have a decent life in their retirement and our children a carefree childhood, all families will lead a happier life and our young and middle-aged people will have greater energy to tap into their entrepreneurship. I do recognize that there are still a great deal of things the government should do in areas related to people’s lives. We will do our level best within the realms of possibility to tackle the key concerns and difficulties that our people face. 彭博新闻社记者: 过去几个月关于中美关系的报道多数集中在贸易,以及中美两国是否能达成有关协议上,或者是集中在关于技术的问题上。美国告诫其他国家,不要使用中国的电信设备,因为这可能被用来对其进行监视。似乎,中美建交40年以来,现在两国关系当中的猜疑和竞争比以往任何时候都严重。总理先生,我想问您的问题是,您如何看待现在的中美关系,您对中美关系未来的走向持何看法?您能否简单谈及目前中美面临的一些具体的冲突点?比如贸易问题,什么样的贸易协议中方可以接受,什么样的不能接受?在技术问题上,中国政府是否会迫使中国的有关企业帮助其监视他国? Bloomberg News: There’s probably not been as much suspicion and competition in the relationship since ties began some 40 years ago. How would you describe the current state of US-China ties? What’s your outlook for the relationship? And also if you could address some specific issues on trade, what kind of deal would China accept, and what kind would China not accept? And on technology, would China force Chinese technology companies to help spy? 李克强: 你对背景的描述和提出的问题都比较多,你自己做了一个归纳,就是到底中美关系现在怎么样,未来怎么走?我认为,中美建交40年来,两国关系可以说是一直向前,取得了丰硕成果。在这个过程当中曲折不断、风云变幻,但是向前走的大趋势没有改变。因为中美两国之间有着广泛的共同利益,我们的共同利益是远大于分歧的。中美之间保持稳定的双边关系,不仅有利于双方,也有利于世界。我认为,在曲折中前行、继续前行这个大趋势是不会、也不应该改变的。 Premier Li: I would like to say that China-US relationship has been forging ahead in the past four decades. And a great deal has been accomplished in the growth of this relationship. At the same time, it is true that the relationship has also gone through some twists and turns. But the underlying trend is for the relationship to go forward, and this has not changed. This is because there are broad common interests between China and the US. And the shared interests far outweigh the differences. Steady growth of China-US relationship is in the interest of both countries. It’s also something good for the whole world. So I expect this relationship to continue forging ahead despite twists and turns. And that should be the underlying trend going forward. 当然,中美关系保持总体稳定的同时,一些矛盾纠纷也经常突出地表现出来。一段时间以来,表现比较突出的是中美经贸摩擦,但是中美双方磋商一直没有停。在去年二十国集团领导人峰会期间,两国元首达成了重要共识,现在双方的磋商还在继续进行。我们希望磋商能有成果,能够实现互利双赢。我相信,这也是世界的期待。 While maintaining the overall stability of China-US relations, we have also seen problems and difficulties appear from time to time. In the past weeks and months, one prominent difficulty in China-US relationship lies in their economic and trade friction. The two countries have been in consultation the whole time. Last year, during the G20 Summit, the presidents of the two countries reached important common understandings. Consultations between the two sides are still ongoing. We hope that good outcomes will be delivered out of those consultations, outcomes that work for both sides and are a win-win. I believe that such a result is also what the whole world would like to see. 中美作为两大经济体,经过几十年来的发展、合作,可以说已是你中有我、我中有你,想人为地把这两大经济体隔开,那是不现实的,也是不可能的。我们还是应该本着合作比对抗好,相互尊重、平等互利这个原则去推动中美关系,包括经贸关系的发展,这样可以使两国人民从中受惠。对于矛盾和分歧,我们相信,中美两国人民是有智慧、有能力来进行化解管控的,去推动符合世界潮流的中美关系保持稳定并且向着健康的方向发展。谢谢。 China and the US, as two large economies, have become closely entwined through years of development and cooperation. It is neither realistic nor possible to decouple these two economies. I believe we need to follow the principles of cooperation instead of confrontation, mutual respect, equality, and mutual benefit, to continue to grow China-US relationship, including economic and trade ties, and to deliver concrete benefits to people of both countries. As for the differences and disagreements, we have the confidence that people of the two countries have the wisdom and capability to defuse and manage them properly, and to pursue steady and sound growth of China-US relationship in keeping with the trend of our time.  新华社记者: 总理您好。2018年是中国改革开放40周年,提出了改革要再出发,现在国内外对中国加快改革有许多新期待。请问总理,今年改革会有什么具体的行动?在优化营商环境方面会有哪些新举措?谢谢。 Xinhua News Agency: The year 2018 marked the 40th anniversary of China’s reform and opening-up, putting China’s reform at a new starting point. There have been new hopes, both at home and abroad, for China to accelerate its reform agenda. What concrete actions will be taken to deepen reform this year? What specific measures will be adopted to improve China’s business environment? 李克强: 改革开放40年来,中国发展取得了巨大的成就,惠及了亿万中国人民。这条路我们会继续走下去,而且应该越走越深入、越宽广。也就是说,我们要继续推进建设社会主义市场经济,继续坚持市场化改革的方向。 Premier Li: Through 40 years of reform and opening-up, China has made remarkable achievements, delivering benefits to its entire population. We intend to stay on this path and will pursue our reform at greater depth and breadth. We will continue to develop our socialist market economy, and pursue market-oriented reforms. 政府要坚持推进市场化、法治化的改革,以实际行动、具体举措让改革成果不断显现。政府的改革应该是更好地让市场在配置资源中发挥决定性作用,也就是说要围着市场做文章,不是老给市场下指令,让市场做什么,而是要把市场的活力激发出来。这次我在参加两会的时候,不少代表委员都提出来希望继续优化营商环境,给企业好的营商环境、公平的营商环境,市场就会发挥自身的力量。应该说,我们这几年通过“放管服”改革,营商环境的优化是取得成效的。去年有关国际组织把中国营商环境的排名,提升了30多位。但社会上也有呼声,营商环境改善得还不够,还有较大差距。我们要倾听这种呼声,进一步改善营商环境。营商环境好了,市场的活力和社会的创造力就会更大释放出来。 The government will continue to move forward these reforms in accordance with market principles and the law, to ensure that concrete outcomes will be delivered through specific actions. In carrying out reform, the government must create an enabling environment for the market to play its decisive role in allocating resources. The job of the government is not to direct what the market should or should not do, but to do its best to energize all market players. During this year’s “Two Sessions”, I have heard the hope expressed by many NPC deputies and CPPCC members for a better business environment in China. They told me that if there is a more enabling business environment and a level playing field, the market will be in a stronger position to play its role. Over the years, through the reform of government functions, we have made substantial progress in improving our business environment. This has also been evidenced by the fact that China’s global ranking in terms of ease of doing business run by an important international organization moved up by over 30 spots last year. There has been improvement, but we are still falling short in some respects. We must listen closely to the views expressed by market players and do our level best to foster a better business environment to unlock market vitality and creativity of the people. 改善营商环境,还是要放管结合并重。放就是要平等地放,不能搞三六九等。我们减少审批程序、办证办照时间,应该说对各类所有制企业,原则是一视同仁的。现在开办企业拿营业执照的时间,经过几年努力,已经从22天降到了8.5天,今年要力争降到5天,有的地方可以降到3天,目前有的发达国家才1天。我到基层去调研,有不少企业反映,拿到营业执照以后还需要很多证,这是所谓准入不准营。我们要采取措施,除了涉及公共安全、特种行业之外,都应该拿到营业执照以后就可以正常经营。政府的监管部门可以加强事中事后监管,在这个过程当中,对企业的行为进行甄别辨别,需要发证的发证,不符合资质条件的,该逐出市场就逐出市场。 When improving the business environment, efforts will be made in both deregulation and oversight. By deregulation, we will ensure that companies of all types of ownership will stand to benefit as equals from our measures of administrative streamlining, including cutting the time required for companies to get business license or other required licenses and permits. There should be no discriminatory practices. For example, through years of efforts, we have cut the time required to get a business license from 22 days to 8.5 days. This year, our goal is to further cut it to five days, and in some places with better conditions, maybe three days. It only takes one day to get a business license in some developed countries. When I visited some local areas, I heard complaints from business owners, telling me that even with a business license, they still face a myriad of requirements for other types of permits, that is, their companies can be up but not actually running. We plan to ensure that except for those areas involving public safety and security and other special sectors, a business license should be enough for a company to be up and running. For government departments, their job should be focused on enhancing compliance oversight, to see what permits are required, and ban non-compliant and disqualified companies from the market. 宽进就要严管。公平的准入,公正的监管,这是鸟之两翼,不可偏废。如果我们监管不到位,那些坑蒙拐骗、侵犯知识产权、假冒伪劣、恶意拖欠款项的行为就有可能肆意妄为。我听到这次两会上一些政协委员反映,他们遇到的是打官司难、讨债难,政府的监管不到位。监管要把规则公开透明,让被监管者知道自己该做什么、不该做什么。监管不能搞选择性监管、任性监管。要形成一种放和管结合、有效的制度性安排。 With lower market thresholds, there must be tightened oversight. There should be fair access to market and impartial regulation. With laxity in regulation on the part of government, malpractices such as cheating and manipulation, infringements of intellectual property, making and selling of fake or substandard goods, or payment arrears, may be left unchecked. I have heard complaints from CPPCC members during this year’s “Two Sessions” about difficulties in seeking legal redress and getting debts repaid due to inadequate oversight. We must make the rules open and transparent, so that market players are fully aware of the dos and don’ts. We must not exercise selective or arbitrary regulation. We must put in place effective institutional arrangements for both deregulation and oversight. 说到政府的规则,监管要公正,个人的隐私也要保护。这就使我联想到刚才彭博社记者提了一连串问题,其中有一个问题我要明确地回答你。你说中国政府有没有要求自己的企业去监听他国的信息,我不知道指的是监听政府的还是公民个人的,反正有一条,这样做不符合中国法律,也不是中国行事的方法,现在不会有,将来也决不会有。 You asked whether the Chinese government will ask Chinese companies to “spy” on other countries. Let me tell you explicitly that this is not consistent with Chinese law. This is not how China behaves. China did not and will not do that in the future. 回到新华社记者刚才关于营商环境的提问上。我可以这么说,减税降费和简政、公平监管,这是我们应对经济下行压力、激发市场活力的两个重要的关键举措。目的还是要让中国经济行稳致远,而且活力四射。谢谢。 It can be said that the tax and fee cuts, together with administrative streamlining and impartial regulation, are two very important parts of our measures to counter the downward economic pressure and boost market vitality. The purpose is to ensure steady and sustained growth of the Chinese economy, and make it full of vigor and vitality. 东森新闻云记者: 我想请教的是,今年年初习近平总书记在《告台湾同胞书》40周年纪念会上的重要讲话,在两岸引起广泛关注。外界很关注大陆今年会具体如何贯彻和落实,举例来说像促进两岸共同发展和两岸民众福祉方面。谢谢。 ETV Today of Taiwan: Early this year, President Xi Jinping gave an important speech at the Meeting Commemorating the 40th Anniversary of the Issuance of the Message to Compatriots in Taiwan and that important speech received close attention from people on both sides of the Taiwan Strait. My question is: how will the mainland implement the policies and propositions set out in that important speech, in particular, to promote the common development of the two sides of the Taiwan Strait and improve the well-being of people on both sides? 李克强: 今年年初,习近平总书记在纪念《告台湾同胞书》发表40周年纪念会上的重要讲话,阐述了我们关于台湾问题的大政方针、原则立场。我们将继续坚持一个中国原则和“九二共识”,反对“台独”,促进两岸关系和平稳定发展,促进祖国和平统一。 Premier Li: Indeed, early this year, General Secretary Xi Jinping gave an important speech at the Meeting Commemorating the 40th Anniversary of the Issuance of the Message to Compatriots in Taiwan. In the important speech, he articulated our principles and policies on the Taiwan question. We will continue to adhere to the one-China principle and the 1992 Consensus, and oppose Taiwan independence. We will continue to work to promote peaceful growth of cross-Strait relations and the peaceful reunification of our motherland. 两岸同胞同根相系,我们愿意出台更多的优惠政策,让台湾同胞在大陆不论是投资兴业、就业就学、生活居住,都能够享受到和大陆同胞同等待遇。我们已经出台了促进两岸经济文化交流合作的“31条举措”,现在的问题是要把这“31条举措”扎扎实实地落到位,而且在这个过程当中,还应当有新的举措。因为两岸同胞共享发展机遇,走得越近越亲,两岸关系的发展就会越好越实。我们都希望能够共圆中华民族伟大复兴的梦想。谢谢。 People on both sides of the Taiwan Strait are bound by kinship. We intend to introduce more preferential policies toward our compatriots in Taiwan to ensure that they will enjoy the same treatment as mainlanders when they come to work, study, live and do business on the mainland. Previously, we introduced 31 measures for promoting cross-Strait economic and cultural exchanges. These measures must be fully delivered. In this process, new measures should be introduced as well. When people on both sides of the Strait enjoy the same development opportunities and come closer to each other, the cross-Strait relationship will grow stronger and make more solid progress. We need to work hand in hand to realize our shared dream of national renewal. 人民日报记者: 总理您好。去年以来,一些企业存在裁员的情况,有的内外资企业开始向境外转移。同时也有一些企业反映,他们想招一些合适的技术工人却很难。所以请问总理,您将采取哪些政策措施来推动这些问题的解决?谢谢。 People’s Daily: Last year, some companies have started to trim staff. Some Chinese and foreign-invested firms have started to relocate their businesses overseas. We have also heard complaints by companies about a shortage of skilled workers. My question is: what measures will the government adopt to resolve these problems? 李克强: 看来你确实感受到就业是个难题啊。在中国现代化进程当中,就业会始终是一个巨大的压力。我们每年新增城镇就业劳动力1500多万,未来几年不会减,而且还要给几百万新进城农民工提供打工的机会。今年我们确定要确保新增城镇就业人数在1100万人以上,实际上我们希望能够实现去年的实际规模,也就是1300万人以上的就业。所以,我们把就业优先的政策首次和财政政策、货币政策并列为宏观政策,财政和货币政策不管是减税、还是降低实际利率水平,在很大程度上都是围绕着就业来进行的。有了就业,才会有收入,才会有社会财富的创造。 Premier Li: Indeed, in China’s modernization process, there will always be tremendous employment pressure. In recent years, on average, some 15 million new entrants entered the labor force each year, and that number will not decrease in the foreseeable future. In addition, we also need to provide job opportunities for several million rural migrant workers every year. This year we plan to create another 11 million or more new urban jobs. And in actual practice, our goal is to generate the same amount of job opportunities as we did last year, that is, over 13 million. You may have also noticed, this year for the first time, we are elevating the status of jobs-first policy to a macro policy together with our fiscal policy and monetary policy. The tax cuts under the fiscal policy as well as cutting real interest rates under the monetary policy are all designed to ensure employment in our country. When there is a job, there is income and there is increase in social wealth. 我们说保持经济运行在合理区间,首先是要保就业,不许经济滑出合理区间,就是不让出现失业潮。我们要多措并举,对一些重点人群要继续保障他们就业,像大学毕业生、复转军人、转岗职工等。今年的高校毕业生又达834万,比去年还多,创历史新高。我们还要确保不出现零就业家庭,对那些容纳劳动力比较多的企业要给政策优惠支持。我们还要推动创新创业创造,用好大众创业、万众创新平台,来提供更多的就业岗位。就业好不好,这本身也是经济好不好的一个重要体现。 Keeping our major economic indicators within a proper range is first and foremost about ensuring employment and preventing a surge in unemployment. To do that, we will apply a combination of measures including promoting employment for key groups of people like college graduates, demobilized military personnel and laid-off workers. This year, the number of college graduates will reach another new high — 8.34 million. We also need to make sure there will be no zero employment families. For those companies that hire more, the government will provide more policy support. In the meantime, we will expand the platforms to encourage business startups and innovation as a way to generate more jobs. The state of employment very much reflects how our economy is faring. 政府工作报告主要讲了保障城镇新增就业,这里我想特别强调一下农民工就业。中国现在有2.8亿多农民工,而且每年是以百万计的数量在增长。他们是许多产业行业的主力军,农民的收入大部分来自于打工收入。农民工的身后可以说有无数家庭的期待。讲到这里,我就想起几年前到我国东北一个中型城市的建设枢纽工地上去考察,有一个印象至今挥之不去。在寒冷的天气里农民工在施工,其中有一位农民工跟我岁数差不多大,我和他对话,他就希望一条:多加班,多挣钱。我说为什么?他说他的一个孩子考上了重点大学,他要挣钱使孩子安心学习,并且学习好。我从他的眼神里面看到他对下一代、对未来的期待。 The government work report touched mainly upon creating new urban jobs. Here I would like to make a special mention of our rural migrant workers which are now numbered at above 280 million. And that figure is still increasing by several million each year. These rural migrant workers are a leading force in many industries and sectors of our country. Much of their earnings come from non-farming jobs, and they carry the hopes of a lot of families. One thing I can never forget is that several years ago, I was visiting the construction site of a local transportation project in a mid-sized northeastern city, where I met some rural migrant workers. It was a cold winter day, and I talked to one of the workers who was about my age on the construction site. He said to me that he wanted to work longer hours so that he could earn more money. I asked him why. He said that his child was just enrolled into a leading university and he wanted to earn more so that his child won’t have to worry about the college tuition fees and can focus on his studies. In his eyes I saw his hopes for a better future for his children. 我们中华民族几千年生生不息,这40年来有如此巨大变化,教育的确起了巨大支撑作用。所以我们要善待农民工,不仅要给他们提供打工的机会,而且要保障他们应有的所得。现在不时发生农民工欠薪的问题,我们要立法规,坚决打击那些恶意欠薪的行为,确保农民工打工有机会,而且合法权益得到保障,要看到他们的身后是无数家庭的希望。谢谢。 Indeed, education has been an important underpinning force that keeps the Chinese nation going for several thousand years. That has made it possible for us to come this far in the past 40 years of reform and opening up. These rural migrant workers must be treated with kindness. And we must ensure that they will not only find jobs but also get paid for their work. There have been instances where their wages cannot be paid in full and on time. The government will formulate regulations to crack down on such malpractices to ensure that the lawful rights and interests of all rural migrant workers will be fully protected. The government must not fail the hope of all their families. 西班牙埃菲社记者: 您认为,中美之间的贸易摩擦对中欧关系发展是机遇还是会带来负面影响?您如何看今年的中欧关系? Spanish News Agency EFE: The trade war with the United States, in case that continues, could represent an opportunity to improve the relationship between Europe and China, or will only have negative effects. And in any case, what do you expect of the relationship between Europe and China this year? 李克强: 中美贸易摩擦是中美双边的事情,我们不会利用第三方,更不会去损害第三方。中国和欧盟,一个是世界上最大的发展中国家,一个是世界上最大的发达国家联盟。可以说,中欧都是世界多极化的重要一极,中欧关系的发展不仅有利于中欧,也有利于世界。 Premier Li: The China-US trade friction is an issue between China and the United States. We will not exploit any third party. We will not target or hurt the interest of any third party. For China and the EU, China is the largest developing country in the world, the EU the largest union of developed countries in the world. And both are important poles in the multi-polar world. A growing China-EU relationship serves the interests of both China and the EU and the world at large. 当然,中欧互为最大的贸易伙伴,我们之间有合作,也有摩擦,过去和现在都存在。但是,我们长期以来积累了化解分歧、摩擦的经验,这些经验我认为还应该继续沿用,其中很重要的就是中欧之间应该增强互信。现在我们正在推进中欧投资谈判,实际上是想让双向投资更加开放,这样做让双方都受益,当然是要公平地受益。我觉得双方都应该以开放的心态看待对方,在合作当中妥善化解分歧,让中欧关系稳步前行。下个月,我要去欧盟总部和欧盟领导人共同举行新一轮中欧领导人会晤。我希望通过本次会晤,双方都从战略的、长远的高度看待中欧关系,都用相互尊重、相互理解、推动合作的心态去促进中欧关系健康稳定发展。谢谢。 China and the EU are each other’s biggest trading partner. There has been cooperation as well as frictions in our relationship. Over the years, we have gained good experience in managing our differences and frictions and I believe such experience should continue to be applied. One very important experience is to deepen our mutual trust. The two sides are now advancing negotiations on an investment agreement. The purpose is to further facilitate the two-way flow of our investment to see that the two sides will benefit on an equal footing from this agreement. I believe that we need to view each other’s development with an open mind and continue to properly handle our differences in the course of pursuing cooperation for continued, steady growth of our relationship. Next month, I am going to visit the EU Headquarters and host the next round of China-EU Summit with the EU leaders. I hope that both sides will view this relationship from a strategic and long-term perspective, and continue to show mutual respect, deepen our mutual understanding and advance cooperation in joint pursuit of sustained, healthy growth of our ties. 中央广播电视总台央视记者: 总理您好。之前您也谈到,在民生领域还有很多事情要做,所以接下来我想提一个有关医疗方面的问题,我们注意到,老百姓看病难看病贵、享受不到优质医疗资源的问题还是比较突出的。尤其是那些得了大病的患者,给他们的家庭带去很沉重的负担。请问总理,在解决这些问题上,政府还有哪些有效举措?谢谢。 China Central Television: It seems that quality medical resources are still somewhat inaccessible and quite expensive. In particular, a serious illness could cause heavy burdens on the families concerned. I would like to ask: what specific measures will the government take to tackle this problem? 李克强: 看病确实是重要的民生问题,尤其大病是民生的痛点。看病贵看病难的问题,在我们国家的确存在。这几年来,我们经过努力,不仅建立了向全民提供基本医疗保障的制度,而且在此基础上,由政府和居民共担,购买大病保险,建立了大病保险的机制,这是可以缓解大病患者特别是困难群众负担的一个重要举措,在世界上也应该是一个创举。 Premier Li: Accessing quality medical resources is indeed a key issue related to people’s lives. And getting treatment for serious illnesses is truly an acute concern of our people. There does exist the problem of inaccessible and quite expensive medical care in our country. I would like to say that over the years we have been able to provide basic medical care services to cover the entire population. In addition, we have established the scheme for serious illness insurance with a cost-sharing formula between the government and individuals, an important measure to mitigate the burdens on patients with serious illnesses, especially needy patients. This is a quite creative step the Chinese government has taken. 去年我们就听到许多关于抗癌药贵的呼声,我们通过减税等多种办法,让17种抗癌药降价50%以上,而且纳入医保,这让癌症患者特别是困难群众大大减轻了负担。这方面的事情,我们能做的都应该去做。 There have been complaints about the high costs of cancer drugs, so last year, through various means including tax cuts, we managed to cut the prices of 17 cancer drugs by over 50 percent and included them into medical insurance schemes. This has significantly eased the financial burdens on cancer patients and poor families. This shows that the government must do its level best in resolving people’s concerns. 今年我们还要做两件这方面的事,并且要尽力。一是把高血压、糖尿病等慢性病患者的门诊用药,纳入医保,给予50%的报销,这将惠及我国4亿高血压、糖尿病患者。我到基层去调研,有一些人告诉我,他们得了这类慢性病,每天都不能断药,负担很重,有的把养老金相当一部分用来买药,我们要努力解决这方面的问题。 This year the government plans to do its utmost in taking two major steps. First, we will make the outpatient drugs for chronic diseases like high blood pressure and diabetes reimbursable, and set the reimbursement rate at 50 percent. This measure will benefit some 400 million Chinese suffering from these chronic diseases. And when I talked to some of those patients, they told me that they have to take drugs every day and a lot of their pension benefits have to be spent on these drugs. This is a problem we need to address.  二是要降低大病保险的起付线,提升大病保险的报销标准。现在近14亿人都进入大病保险了,要让更多的人、上千万的人能够直接受益,因为我们这个大病保险是有倍数效应的。要看到,我们的医保虽然覆盖全民,但是水平不高,尤其是农民人均年收入不到1.5万元,遇到大病靠自己扛是很难的。所以政府和社会要共同出力,缓解这个民生之痛。没有健康就没有幸福。谢谢。 Second, when it comes to serious illness insurance scheme, which already covers nearly 1.4 billion people, we will lower the payout threshold and raise the reimbursement rate so that this scheme can truly produce amplifying effects to benefit as many people as possible. Although we have established a medical care safety net that covers a large population, the level of actual benefits is still not high. For example, for Chinese farmers, their average per capita annual income is less than 15,000 yuan, so it would be very hard for one to just rely on himself or herself to cover expenses for the treatment of serious illnesses. The government and private entities must work together in this respect to meet people’s health needs. Without health, there would be no happy life for our people. 亚洲新闻台记者: 总理您好。去年以来,中国政府多次表示,中国将越来越开放。但有些评论认为,中方“口惠而实不至”,缺乏实际行动。今天外商投资法已经全国人大表决通过,也有舆论表示担心或质疑,认为这部法律的特别加速通过,大部分只是对美国压力的回应,而且部分法律条款的模糊性也给了中国政府灵活掌握的空间,降低了投资者对实际效力的期望。请问李总理,您对此有何回应?中国政府将推出哪些具体、可落实的政策呢?谢谢。 Channel NewsAsia of Singapore: The Foreign Investment Law has just been adopted at the NPC Session today. Yet there is also worry that the exceptional swift adoption of this piece of legislation is only in large measure a response to pressure from the United States. And the ambiguity of some legal provisions will only provide the Chinese government further wiggle room for self-discretion and lower investors’ expectations of the actual effects of enforcement. How would you respond to this? What specific measures will the government take to ensure full enforcement of the law? 李克强: 对外开放是中国的基本国策,让中国人民普遍受惠,也有利于世界,我们何乐而不为?开放的措施说出去了,当然要兑现。像去年,我们一些重大基础产业放开外资投入的股比,有很多重大项目落地了。我们去年利用外资,仍然是世界上发展中国家中最多的。中国会继续听取各方面的意见,继续保持对外开放热土的温度。 Premier Li: Opening-up is China’s fundamental state policy. It has delivered real benefits to the Chinese people and has benefited the world. So why won’t we go ahead with it? If we make a promise on opening-up, we will certainly deliver on it. For instance, last year, we lifted foreign ownership restrictions in some key basic industries. And we have seen the delivery of a big number of major projects in these respects. Last year, China remained the largest recipient of FDI among all developing countries. Going ahead, we will continue to carefully listen to the views from various parties and keep making China more open. 刚才闭幕的十三届全国人大二次会议通过了外商投资法,这个法是要用法律的手段更好保护外商投资,吸引外商投资。这个法律也可以说是规范政府行为的,要政府依法行政,而且政府要根据这个法律的精神出台一系列法规、文件,保护外商权益,比如信息投诉机制如何公开、透明、有效。这是我们下一步要做的很重要的事情,会推出一系列有关法规和文件,让外商投资法顺利实施。 The just concluded NPC Session adopted the Foreign Investment Law. This piece of legislation is designed to better protect and attract foreign investment through legislative means. This law will also regulate government behaviors, requiring the government to perform its functions in accordance with the law. The government will introduce a series of matching regulations and directives to protect the rights and interests of foreign investors, such as on working mechanisms for handling complaints filed by foreign-invested enterprises. These will be the important things for the government to do in the following weeks and months to see that this law will be truly operable. 我们要实行准入前国民待遇和负面清单制度,而且要推出新的负面清单。这个新推出的负面清单会做减法,而且以后还要逐步做减法,也就是说非禁准入的范围会越来越大。还要加强对知识产权的保护,将修改知识产权法,对侵权行为引入惩罚性的赔偿机制,发现一起就要处理一起,而且要让侵犯知识产权的行为无处可遁。当然,我们也希望外国政府公正地看待中国企业和国外企业双方自愿的合作。总之,今年对外开放的举措我们会不断地推、继续地推。我多次讲过,中国的开放举措,往往不是一揽子推出来的,每年甚至每个季度都在出,但回过头来看,积累起来就会带来想象不到的巨大变化。谢谢。 We will continue to implement a management system of pre-establishment national treatment plus a negative list. We will release a newly revised negative list which will become shorter. And going forward, we will further shorten our negative list, which means that more areas will be opened up for foreign investment. We will also enhance the protection of intellectual property. In this respect, we will make revisions to the laws on IPR protection and introduce a mechanism of punitive compensation to ensure that all infringements of intellectual property will be seriously dealt with and have nowhere to hide. We also hope that foreign governments can view in an objective light the cooperation between Chinese companies and their foreign partners based on mutual agreement. In a word, China will further open up, and China’s opening-up measures will not come on a one-off basis, but will be introduced quarter after quarter and year after year. In hindsight, when we review the course of China’s opening-up, we would realize how tremendous a change that has taken place in this country. 光明日报全媒体记者: 总理您好。去年以来,央行几次降准,降低了金融机构的成本,但是企业依然反映融资难融资贵,政策实惠看得见摸不着。在促进金融服务实体经济方面,政府将采取哪些举措?谢谢。 Guangming Daily: Last year, the Central Bank cut required reserve ratio several times, lowering the costs of financial institutions. However, companies still feel there is difficulty in accessing affordable financing. And they have yet to feel the actual results of those policy adjustments. What measures will be adopted this year to ensure there will be better financial services for the real economy? 李克强: 服务实体经济,这是金融的天职,但是我们确实面临着实体经济,特别是民营经济、小微企业融资难融资贵的问题。去年我们采取了一系列措施,遏制了融资难融资贵上升的势头。我们四次降准,其目的还是通过降低金融机构本身的成本,促进这些资金流向民营经济和小微企业。今年我们要抓住融资难融资贵这个制约经济发展、市场活力的“卡脖子”问题,多策并举、多管齐下,让小微企业融资成本在去年的基础上再降低1个百分点。 Premier Li: Serving the real economy is the bounden duty of the financial sector. However, there does exist the problem of inaccessible and expensive financing for the real economy, in particular, private businesses and small and micro companies. Last year, we took a number of steps to curb the fast rise in the financing cost faced by our companies. The Central Bank cut required reserve ratio four times to reduce costs for financial institutions, so that more money will flow to our private companies, and small and micro companies. This year, we will take a multi-pronged approach in this respect to significantly ameliorate this problem that is seriously constraining our economic development and the vitality of our market. Our goal is to further cut the financing cost for small and micro companies by another one percentage point this year. 我们对外开放是自主的抉择,而且我们要按照竞争中性的原则,也就是对所有外资企业一视同仁的对待,同样,对中国国内各类所有制企业都应该一视同仁。现在在贷款问题上,的确需要清除一些障碍,引导金融机构改善内部管理机制,多跑民营企业、小微企业,为他们降低融资成本、减少不合理的费用出力。小微活,经济才活,就业才多。 As China takes its own initiative to further open up, we will adhere to the principle of competitive neutrality and treat both domestic and foreign-invested enterprises as equals. Likewise, we also need to treat all businesses under various types of ownership as equals. As far as lending is concerned, there do exist some problems and obstacles. We need to encourage financial institutions to enhance their internal management system and provide more services to private companies, and to small and micro firms, to lessen their financing cost and rein in arbitrary charges. When small and micro companies are vibrant, our economy will be full of life and energy. And there will be a stable employment situation. 当然,我们也时刻注意防范金融风险。对于那些不具备生存条件的“僵尸企业”,不会给他们新的贷款,对违法违规的所谓金融行为,该制止的制止,该打击的打击。我们完全可以守住不发生系统性金融风险的底线,加强金融服务和防范金融风险是相辅相成的。谢谢。 In the meantime, we also need to forestall financial risks. No new loans will be made to zombie companies which are no longer solvent. And so-called financial activities that are illegal and non-compliant must be stopped and seriously dealt with. We are fully capable of forestalling systemic financial risks. Strengthening financial services and preventing financial risks are mutually reinforcing. 俄通社-塔斯社记者: 李总理您好,今年是中俄建交70周年,在两国关系发展史中具有里程碑意义。去年中俄双边贸易额历史上首次突破1000亿美元,您认为今年中俄关系和经贸合作会有哪些新的突破?谢谢。 TASS: This year marks the 70th anniversary of diplomatic relations between Russia and China, a milestone in the history of relations between our two countries. Last year, for the first time, two-way trade exceeded US$100 billion. What new breakthroughs do you foresee for the growth of Russia-China relations, and in particular, their economic and trade cooperation this year? 李克强: 中俄互为最大邻邦,中俄保持良好稳定的关系不仅有利于双方,也有利于地区、有利于世界。 Premier Li: China and Russia are each other’s biggest neighbors. A sound and stable China-Russia relationship serves the interests of the two countries, the region and the world. 今年是中俄建交70周年,70年来,中俄关系走过了不平凡的路,现在可以说是高水平的。我们的政治互信不断增加,人文交流也在不断深化,特别是刚才你提到,去年在世界贸易下行的情况下,中俄之间贸易额突破了1000亿美元的规模,这可以说是一个新的标志。这本身表明,我们之间的合作有很大潜力。下一步,我们还可以拓展领域。我们既可以抓大,也可以推小,抓大项目、大宗商品贸易,推小微企业,包括跨境电商的合作。既可以上天,在航天航空领域合作,也可以下地,推地方民间的交流,就是要把能用的十八般武艺都用起来,巩固中俄经贸规模突破1000亿美元的成果,而且向翻番的目标迈进。谢谢。 This year is the 70th anniversary of diplomatic ties between the two countries. In the past seven decades, our relationship has traveled an extraordinary journey. And today it has reached a very high level featuring deepening mutual political trust and growing people-to-people exchange. As you mentioned, in spite of the downturn in global trade growth last year, trade between our two countries exceeded, for the first time, US$100 billion. That shows there is still much untapped potential in our business ties. And we need to work together to further expand areas of cooperation. For example, we may continue to focus on our big project cooperation and trade in commodities. We may also strengthen our cooperation between micro and small firms and cross-border e-commerce platforms. We may enhance collaboration in aviation and aerospace, and also enhance exchanges at the sub-national level and between our peoples. In a word, we need to make use of all possible means at our disposal to, first, keep our 100-billion-dollar trade stable, and then, work further toward the goal of doubling it. 澎湃新闻记者: 总理您好。您一直在强调要大力发展“互联网+”,发展共享经济,但是去年发生了一连串的负面事件。您对此怎么看?下一步政府对规范发展共享经济有什么新的举措?谢谢。 The Paper: You have been calling for the growth of Internet Plus and sharing economy. However, we also saw serious problems last year in these areas. What’s your comment? What measures should be adopted to better regulate the growth of sharing economy? 李克强: “互联网+”、共享经济,也可以说是平台经济。它作为新事物,和任何新事物一样,在发展中总会有利有弊。但是总的看,它带动了就业,方便了群众,而且推动了相关产业的发展。像电商、快递、移动支付等,大家都有感受,众人做事,集众智集众力,众人共享。 Premier Li: Internet Plus and sharing economy can also be viewed as a platform economy. Like other new things, they also have upsides and downsides. They have added new jobs, and made life easier and more convenient for our people. They have also driven China’s industrial development. For example, the growth of e-commerce, express delivery services and mobile payment have made life more convenient for our people. When wisdom and strength are pooled, all stand to benefit. 对于这种新业态、新模式,不能简单任性,要么不管,要么管死。所以我们这几年一直采用的是包容审慎的原则。包容就是对新的事物,我们已知远远小于未知,要允许它发展,对发展中出现的问题加以纠正。 For these new forms of business and new business models, we must not exercise arbitrary regulation or oversight, that is, either letting them be or shutting them down as soon as problems appear. Our choice over the years is to exercise accommodative and prudential regulation. By accommodative, we need to recognize that what is known about new things is always much less than what is unknown about them. So they should be allowed a good chance to grow. And the government needs to detect and redress any possible problem that comes along the way. 所谓审慎监管,就是要划出安全的底线,也不允许打着“互联网+”、共享经济的招牌搞招摇撞骗。要给创业者提供一个能够成长的空间,给企业一个发展新动能的环境。在这个过程中,我们需要的是公平的准入、公正的监管。新事物在市场力量推动过程中,它本身要靠市场,要在市场竞争中优胜劣汰,政府也要进行公平公正监管。愉快和烦恼总是在成长当中相伴随,我们要做的就是引导他们健康成长。 By prudential regulation, the government needs to draw a clear line at public safety and security. And no one should be allowed to use Internet Plus or sharing economy as an excuse or means for cheating and manipulation. In this way, our purpose is to foster a more enabling environment for all entrepreneurs and provide our companies good opportunities in developing new drivers of growth. In a word, there should be equal access to the market and impartial regulation on the part of the government. In market competition, the fittest will survive. And with impartial regulation, good rules will be enforced. There will always be both happiness and pain in the growth of new forms of business. The job of the government is to provide them with proper guidance. 其实,互联网经济、共享经济、平台经济还有很大发展空间。电商、快递对工业品下乡、农产品进城,可以进一步起到搞活流通的作用。在工业领域,推动工业互联网,可以把那些闲置的资源带动起来,而且促进技术创新。在社会领域,用武之地就更大了,像“互联网+医疗健康”、“+养老助幼”、“+教育”,可以联动许多方面,尤其是让偏远地区、农村的群众、家庭、孩子通过互联网能够享受优质的学校、医院,优秀的教师、医生资源,帮助他们解决实际的问题。这方面的例子就很多了,我看过不少“互联网+医疗诊断”、“+教育”的实例,这本身也在释放着市场的活力和社会的创造力。谢谢。 Internet Plus and sharing and platform economies still have broad space for further growth. For example, e-commerce and express delivery services have made it possible for industrial goods to reach rural areas, and for quality agricultural produce to be delivered to urban households. In the industrial sector, we may advance the Industrial Internet to put idle production equipment to better and more efficient use and encourage technological innovation. In the social sphere, Internet Plus has also made a difference. For example, it has enabled the sharing and connectivity of different medical, health care resources, educational resources and other services so that even children, aged people and others living in remote rural areas can have access to better hospitals, schools, doctors, teachers and other quality resources. There are many such concrete examples. Such a development has further energized our markets and unleashed public creativity. 香港凤凰卫视记者: 我的问题是有关外商投资法,但是角度不太一样。因为我们特别关注到外商投资法当中并没有涉及到港澳台的投资,我想这会让港澳台各界有些不太理解。另外,我也仔细听了您刚刚关于对外开放的表述,其中也没有谈到港澳台,这会不会表明中央政府对待港澳台的投资政策上面会有一些调整呢?谢谢。 Phoenix TV: The Investment from Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan is not addressed in the Foreign Investment Law. This may be confusing for people from these three regions. And in your comments about China’s opening-up, you did not mention what measures would be adopted toward Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan. Does that mean that there will be certain adjustment to the policies of the central government regarding investment from these three regions? 李克强: 香港和澳门是中华人民共和国的特别行政区,海峡两岸同属一个中国,我们历来高度重视港澳台的投资,港澳到内地的投资占我们利用境外投资的70%,能不重视吗?我们会进一步发挥港澳作为单独关税区和自由港的作用。我刚才对台湾记者也说了,我们会为台胞来大陆投资兴业创造优惠的条件。 Premier Li: Hong Kong and Macao are special administrative regions of the People’s Republic of China, and the two sides of the Taiwan Strait belong to one and the same China. We have all along attached great importance to investment from these three regions. Investment from Hong Kong and Macao accounts for 70 percent of all overseas investment on the mainland. So how can we not set store by investment from these two regions? We will further harness the advantages of Hong Kong and Macao as separate customs territories and free ports. When I was addressing the question from the Taiwan journalist, I also said that we are going to create more favorable conditions for business people from Taiwan to invest on the mainland. 我这里要明确,港澳台投资是可以参照、或者比照适用刚刚通过的外商投资法,而且我们长期以来行之有效的一些制度安排和实际做法还要继续沿用,不仅不会影响,而且会有利于吸引港澳台的投资。国务院在制定有关法规或者有关政策性文件的过程中,会认真听取港澳台同胞的意见,切实保护好他们的合法权益,也欢迎有更多的港澳台投资。谢谢。 The Foreign Investment Law can be used as a reference for investment from these three regions. Moreover, the institutional arrangements and actual practices that have long been in place and proven effective for them will go on unaffected. We hope that these efforts will help to attract even more investment from Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan. The State Council will formulate related regulations or policy documents. In this process, we will listen carefully to the views of fellow Chinese from Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan to see their lawful rights and interests duly protected. Investment from these three regions is most welcome. 张业遂: 时间过得很快,记者会的时间也差不多了,我看是不是请总理再回答最后两个问题。 中国日报记者: 总理您好。我们注意到,从去年开始,国内消费增速出现了持续下滑的状态,可以说内需不振,但同时我们也看到,有上亿的中国人走出国门到海外去消费。请问总理,政府将出台什么措施来进一步提振国内消费?谢谢。 China Daily: Last year, the growth of China’s domestic consumption trended downward. However, at the same time, hundreds of millions of Chinese chose to travel overseas for shopping. My question is: what measures will the government take to boost domestic consumption? 李克强: 的确一段时间以来,我国的消费出现了增速放缓的趋势。消费和民生可以说是一个硬币的两面,我们需要合理的投资规模和消费增长。当然消费需要有收入支撑,但同时也要看到,我们的消费当中确实还存在着不少堵点和障碍,应该去解决。这样有利于消费,也有利于改善民生。 Premier Li: It is true that the growth of China’s domestic consumption has been declining for some time. Consumption and people’s well-being are like the two sides of the same coin. There needs to be a reasonable size of investment and increase in consumption. Although consumption is in a certain sense driven by increase in income, we should also recognize there are still obstacles that constrain the growth of domestic consumption. We must resolve these problems, as this will help boost consumption and improve people’s lives. 比如,这几年公路运输和出行不断增加,政府工作报告提出,两年内要基本取消省界高速公路收费站,大家都很赞成。这样做有利于解决拥堵问题,也有利于相关产业发展。这个目标我们要确保完成,同时我们要求有关部门力争提前实现。 We have seen an increase in travel by roads in recent years. In this year’s government work report, we set the goal that within two years, we will eliminate almost all expressway tollbooths at provincial borders. And that has proven to be a very popular policy initiative. It will not just ease traffic congestion, but also help with the growth of related industries and sectors. This goal must be achieved, and we have instructed the relevant departments to make their best efforts to achieve it ahead of schedule. 又比如,网络的提速降费,这几年我们连续在推进,这有利于消费者,也有利于产业的发展。今年要在过去的基础上再降费20%。我让有关方面测算,他们预计要让利1800亿给消费者。还要求他们必须做到可以携号转网,这样可以倒逼清理那些不明不白的套餐,让我们的企业改善服务,也促进产业本身提质升级。 In recent years, we have also worked to raise the speed and cut the rates of Internet services. That has benefited our consumers and boosted the growth of related industries. This year, the goal is to cut the rates for mobile internet services by another 20 percent, and that will involve some RMB180 billion yuan. At the same time, we require that it should be made possible for cellphone users to switch their telecommunications service carriers without changing their phone numbers. This will force the carriers to overhaul hidden charges and further improve their services. It will also help to upgrade the whole industry. 再比如,我们今年要再降低一般工商业电价10%,这不仅让工业企业受惠,商业企业也同样受益。现在电商有上千万家,6亿多消费用户,电商是24小时营业的,我去看过,他们说计算机耗电的费用压力不小,降低电价就可以让利给消费者,也可以促进产业发展,这是一举多得的事情。其实,消费当中还有很多制度性的堵点应当消除,或者说减少,这可以激发消费的潜力、市场的活力、社会的创造力。我们有关方面要眼中有活,做明白人、办贴心事。谢谢。 We also plan to cut the prices of electricity for general industrial and commercial companies by an additional 10 percent this year. When it comes to e-commerce, there are up to 10 million online shops in China with over 600 million consumers, and e-commerce platforms run 24/7, and these computers consume a lot of electricity. So when electricity price is cut for these companies, it will also make it possible for our consumers to benefit more and transform and upgrade the related industries. It is thus an initiative with multiple benefits. We must endeavor to ease and even eliminate all these institutional barriers that constrain consumption. This will stimulate consumption, energize market players, and unlock public creativity. All government departments must be fully aware of the concerns of the people and do their best to meet our people’s expectations. 日本经济新闻社记者: 李克强总理您好。我们知道,中国是今年中日韩领导人会议的主席国,您认为本次会议将重点讨论哪些问题?当前,在世界范围内贸易保护主义抬头的背景下,我觉得中日韩自贸区(FTA)也将成为今年会议主题。您认为中日韩FTA什么时候能够签署?另外,对中方而言区域全面经济伙伴关系协定(RCEP)和中日韩FTA哪一个是优先考虑的选项?谢谢。 李克强: Nikkei: China is the chair of the China-Japan-ROK summit mechanism this year. And Mr. Premier, what do you think will be the focus of the discussions at the summit? In the backdrop of growing trade protectionism in the international environment, my feeling is that the trilateral FTA may become a focus of discussion this year. When can this FTA be signed? And for China, between the RCEP and the China-Japan-ROK FTA, which is a higher priority? 今年是中日韩领导人会议机制20周年,中方担任主席国,我们会和日方、韩方共同商讨会议的议题。应该说,记者朋友刚才问得还是很敏锐的。我认为,议题中应当包括推动中日韩自贸区建设,特别是在当前世界贸易保护主义抬头的大背景下,推动中日韩自贸区建设,达成一个全面、高水平、互惠的协定,对三方都有好处。虽然现在日本和韩国都对中国有比较大的贸易顺差,但是我们还是愿意进行平等的竞争,让消费者有更多选择。我相信,在这个过程中会实现优势互补,各方得益。至于说中日韩自贸区和RCEP哪一个先达成,我想那要看我们各方所做的努力了。不管是哪一个协议能够先达成,中方都乐见其成。 Premier Li: This year marks the 20th anniversary of the framework of leaders’ meeting among China, Japan and the ROK, and China will be the chair this year. We will discuss with Japan and the ROK and work out the agenda of this year’s summit. I think that the FTA development among the three countries should be put on the agenda of the leaders’ meeting. In particular, given the larger international environment of growing trade protectionism, the development of an FTA among these three countries with a comprehensive, high standard and mutually beneficial agreement is in the interest of all three countries. Although Japan and the ROK run pretty large surpluses in their trade with China, China is still prepared to compete with them on a level playing field so that consumers of the three countries will have more options. In this process, I believe it is important for us to draw on each other’s comparative strengths so that we can all stand to benefit. As to which one will be concluded first, the China-Japan-ROK FTA or RCEP, I think that depends on efforts made by the parties concerned. And whichever will be concluded first, China would welcome that. 因为是最后一个问题了,我还想再说一下,中国不仅重视和东北亚国家的关系,比如刚才我回答了韩国记者的提问,表示中国作为负责任大国,会继续在推进半岛无核化当中发挥建设性作用。我们还重视和东南亚、和所有周边国家的合作。我们希望有一个稳定的周边环境,亲诚惠容。而且我们也愿意把“一带一路”倡议和有关国家的发展战略相对接。中国将坚定不移走和平发展道路,坚定不移做地区和世界和平与发展的维护者、贡献者。谢谢各位。 As we come to the final question, let me add one point. China pays attention to its relations with Northeast Asian countries. Just now, I addressed a question from the ROK journalist saying that China will continue to play a constructive role as a major country for the denuclearization on the Korean Peninsula. But not just so, we also pay a great deal of attention to our relations with Southeast Asian countries and indeed all our neighbors. We hope to have a stable neighborhood and will continue to follow the principles of amity, sincerity, mutual benefit and inclusiveness in developing relations with those countries. We will work with them to enhance the complementarity between China’s Belt and Road Initiative and their development plans. In a word, China will stay on the path of peaceful development and will continue to be a positive force and a contributor for regional and global peace and development. 南方都市报记者: 总理,今年“五一”还会放小长假吗? Southern Metropolis Daily: Would there be a three-day national holiday for the May 1st Labor Day this year? 李克强: 我们会让有关部门抓紧研究,充分听取大家的意见。 Premier Li: We w谢谢分享ould ask relevant departments to study this expeditiously, taking full account of t
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发表于 2019-4-12 18:43:38 | 显示全部楼层
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发表于 2019-4-24 13:15:53 | 显示全部楼层
谢谢分享~
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发表于 2019-4-24 20:32:49 来自手机 | 显示全部楼层
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发表于 2019-4-28 11:46:06 来自手机 | 显示全部楼层
thanks for sharing
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