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[时政] 2020-09-15 联合国成立75周年专访秘书长古特雷斯

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发表于 2020-9-18 10:02:20 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
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UN News Reporter: COVID-19 has hit the world hard and changed many things. We’ve seen amazing acts of solidarity, but there are still some struggles ahead. How do you assess where we are now with this pandemic?

联合国新闻记者:2019冠状病毒病重创了世界,改变了许多事情。你如何评估我们现在在这场疾病大流行中的表现和所取得的进展?

UN Secretary-General António Guterres: I’m very worried. The pandemic has shown us the enormous fragility of the world. Not only in relation to COVID-19, but also in relation to climate change, to the lawlessness in cyberspace, the risks of nuclear proliferation, to the impacts of inequality in the cohesion of societies.

联合国秘书长古特雷斯:我非常担心。这场大流行病向我们展示了世界的巨大脆弱性。这种脆弱性不仅体现在2019冠状病毒病方面,还反映在气候变化、网络空间的违法行为、核扩散的风险、在社会凝聚力方面存在的不平等所造成的影响。

A microscopic virus has put us on our knees. This should lead to a lot of humility in world leaders, and to unity and solidarity in the fight against COVID-19. But we know that there has been no unity. Each country has adopted its own strategy, and we see the results: the virus has progressed everywhere.

一种微小的病毒让我们屈服。这应该会让世界领导人变得更加谦逊,并在与2019冠状病毒病的斗争中团结一致。但我们知道,他们一直未能形成团结。每个国家都在采取自己的战略,我们已经看到了后果: 病毒在各地蔓延。

In developing countries, people are suffering so much from this lack of solidarity. This is negative for everybody, because if we are not able to properly address COVID-19 in these countries, the virus goes back and forth and we will all pay a heavy price, even in the richest countries in the world.

在发展中国家,人们因缺乏团结而饱受痛苦。这对每个人都是不利的,因为如果我们不能在这些国家妥善解决2019冠状病毒病问题,病毒就会来回传播,我们都将付出沉重的代价,即使在世界上最富裕的国家也是如此。

Reporter: What would you hope governments and community do to overcome it and emerge stronger?

记者:你希望政府和社区做些什么来战胜疫情并变得更加强大?

SG: We need everyone to work together in cooperation.  It is absolutely essential that a vaccine be considered a global public good, a people’s vaccine. And that we won't have a competition of countries trying to get as many vaccines as possible for themselves, and forgetting about those that have less resources.

古特雷斯:我们需要大家一起合作。将2019冠状病毒病疫苗视为一种全球公益物,一种人民疫苗至关重要。我们希望避免各国竞相为自己获取尽可能多的疫苗,而忘记那些资源较少的国家。

We need an affordable vaccine for everybody, everywhere, because we will only be safe if everybody’s safe. To think that we can preserve the rich people and let the poor people suffer, is a stupid mistake.

我们需要一种所有地方的每一个人都能负担得起的疫苗,因为只有每个人都安全,我们才会安全。认为富人可以得到保护,只是穷人遭殃的想法是一个愚蠢的错误。

Reporter: COVID-19 may have diverted attention and resources away from the urgent need for climate action. What are three key things that must be done immediately for the world to shift gear on this issue?  

记者:2019冠状病毒病可能转移了人们对采取紧急气候行动的注意力和资源。在这个问题上,世界必须立即采取的关键措施是什么?

SG: Our objective has been defined by the scientific community. We absolutely must limit the growth in temperature to 1.5 degrees, by the end of the century. For that, we need to have carbon neutrality by 2050. And for that, we need to have a reduction of about 45 per cent of emissions in the next decade.

古特雷斯:科学界已经确定了我们的目标。到本世纪末,我们绝对必须将气温升幅限制在1.5摄氏度以内。为此,我们需要在2050年实现碳中和。为此,我们需要在未来十年减少约45%的排放。

So, the objectives are clear. How can we reach them? We need a total commitment, especially of the big emitters, to all the transformational actions in energy, in agriculture in industry, in transportation, in all areas of our life, we need transformation actions that make it possible to reach those objectives.

所以,目标很明确。我们怎样才能达到这些目标?我们需要对能源、农业、工业、交通以及我们生活的所有领域的所有变革行动做出全面承诺,特别是排放大国,我们需要能够实现这些目标的变革行动。

And it’s very simple. We should stop spending taxpayers’ money in subsidies to fossil fuels. We should massively invest in renewable energy because it’s cheaper, it’s most profitable. It’s not only the right thing to do, it is the best economic thing to do.  

很简单,我们应该停止用纳税人的钱补贴化石燃料。我们应该大量投资可再生能源,因为它更便宜,利润更高。这不仅是正确的做法,也是最经济的做法。

We need to stop the construction of coal power plants. We need to invest in new forms of mobility, namely through electric cars; we need to invest in hydrogen. That is the fuel of the future.  

我们需要停止煤电厂的建设。我们需要通过电动汽车投资于新的机动形式。我们需要投资于氢——这是未来的燃料。

And at the same time, we need to conduct protection of biodiversity, protection of forests, transformation in our agriculture. In all these aspects, we need to work together with a common strategy and with a clear objective, we need to be carbon neutral in 2050.

同时,我们需要保护生物多样性,保护森林,改造我们的农业。在所有这些方面,我们需要以共同的战略和明确的目标共同努力,我们需要在2050年实现碳中和。

Reporter: The 2030 deadline set for the achievement of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals is really not too far away. How should world leaders re-focus efforts, to achieve the SDGs? After all they are our blueprint for a more sustainable and equitable planet.

记者:为实现17个可持续发展目标设定的2030年最后期限确实并不遥远。世界领导人应该如何重新集中精力,实现可持续发展目标?毕竟,它们是我们建设一个更加可持续和公平的地球的蓝图。

SG: Well, because of COVID-19 and the need to recover our economies, we are spending trillions of dollars at the present moment. So, if you are spending thousands of dollars, let’s do it in line with the Sustainable Development Goals.

古特雷斯:由于2019冠状病毒病和恢复经济的需要,我们目前正在花费数万亿美元。所以,如果你花费几千美元,请让我们按照可持续发展目标来做。

Let’s do it in line with the 2030 Agenda. Let’s rebuild our economies better with more equity fighting inequality, with more sustainability fighting climate change, and addressing all the other aspects that are relevant in the Sustainable Development Goals – be it the reduction of poverty, be it the protection of the oceans, be it things related to education, to health, to governance.

让我们按照2030议程来做。让我们更好地重建我们的经济,用更多的公平来对抗不平等,用更多的可持续性来抗击气候变化,并解决与可持续发展目标相关的所有其他方面——无论是减少贫困,无论是保护海洋,无论是与教育、健康、治理有关的事情。

So, COVID-19 is a threat, is a problem, but it is also an opportunity, because as we are to change, we can change in the right direction. As we are mobilizing massive resources to rebuild, we can rebuild in the right direction and our blueprint must be Agenda 2030 and the Sustainable Development Goals.

因此,2019冠状病毒病是一个威胁,一个问题,但也是一个机会,因为我们要改变,我们可以朝着正确的方向改变。当我们动员大量资源进行重建时,我们可以朝着正确的方向进行重建,我们的蓝图必须是2030年议程和可持续发展目标。

Reporter: The UN has been around for 75 years, and you’ve called on everyone to participate actively in the UN75 conversations, especially those not often heard, including youth. You have spoken to youth, but also you were often in listening mode. What encouraged you from those conversations with youth?

记者:联合国已经存在了75年,你呼吁每个人积极参与联合国75周年的对话,尤其是那些不常听到的对话,包括年轻人。你和年轻人谈过话,但也经常处于倾听状态。是什么鼓励你与年轻人的对话?

SG: A very strong commitment of youth to international corporation. The young generation is much more cosmopolitan than my generation. They feel a universalist approach to problems. They understand that we need to be together.  

古特雷斯:这源于年轻人对国际合作的坚定承诺。年轻一代比我们这一代人更具国际视野。他们觉得解决问题的方法应当具有普遍性。他们明白我们需要团结在一起。

And so they understand that we need a stronger multilateralism, but a multilateralism that is also a people’s multilateralism, in which they can participate in decision making, and this very strong commitment of young people to ideas like Universal Health Coverage; to ideas like climate action; to ideas like more justice and equality in our societies; gender equality (the) fight against racism. All these aspects show very committed young people. That is the biggest hope I have in relation to our common future.

因此,他们明白我们需要更强大的多边主义,但多边主义也是人民的多边主义,他们可以在其中参与决策。年轻人致力于全民健康覆盖等理念、气候行动、性别平等、社会公正和平等、反对种族主义等坚定承诺。这些方面都显示出年轻人的投入,这是我对我们共同未来怀有的最大的希望。

Reporter: Some 25 years ago, the Beijing Declaration was a historic turning point for advancing the rights of women. But millennia of patriarchy have resulted in a male dominated world. What would you like to see men do, to ensure we have gender policy parity and equality?

记者:大约25年前,《北京宣言》成为推进妇女权利的一个历史性转折点。但是几千年的父权制导致了男性主导的世界。你希望看到男性做些什么,以确保我们实施性别平等的政策?

SG: Men must understand that it is in the interest of everybody, not only of women, to have gender equality and gender parity, because the world will be better.

古特雷斯:男性必须明白,实现性别平等和性别均等不仅仅符合女性的利益,而是符合每个人的利益,因为世界会变得更美好。

It is true we live in a male-dominated world with a male-dominated culture. That is why it is so important in the UN to reach parity. And we have done it at the top level, but we now need to do it everywhere.

诚然,我们生活在一个男性主导的世界,一个男性主导的文化之中。这就是为什么在联合国实现平等如此重要。我们已经在最高级别做到了,但现在我们需要在所有层面都这样做。

There is essentially a question of power and we need to have – I don’t like to use, ‘empowering women’ – it looks like we are giving power to women. Power is not given, it’s taken, but we need to have women moving, in order to assert their role in society. And we need men understanding that that is a positive thing.

从本质上来说,这是一个权力的问题,……我不喜欢使用“赋予女性权能”的说法,因为这看起来好像我们在赐予女性权力。权力不是被赋予的,而要加以行使,但我们需要让女性行动起来,以发挥她们在社会中的作用。我们需要男性明白这是一件积极的事情。

Reporter: Mr. Guterres, you’ve spoken passionately about inequalities and injustice, the cause of many problems in the world today. What are some of the most damaging examples of these, and how can multilateralism be the answer for all humankind to benefit?

记者:古特雷斯先生,你充满激情地谈论了不平等和不公正,这是当今世界许多问题的根源。其中最具破坏性的例子有哪些?多边主义如何成为使全人类受益的一项答案?

SG: It’s very shocking from the point of view of wealth and income, to see 1 per cent of humankind, having more resources than half of the world population. But I would say the most shocking aspects of inequality are not necessarily linked to money.  

古特雷斯:从财富和收入的角度来看,人类的1%人口拥有的资源超过世界一半人口所拥有的财富,这令人极为震惊。但我想说,不平等最令人震惊的方面不一定与金钱有关。

It’s the inequality linked to discriminations in relation to gender, in relation to racism, in relation to religion, in relation to people with disability, in relation to the LGBTQI community. I mean, we need to have a society in which cohesion is our objective. We need to invest in cohesion to make every community - indigenous communities, minorities in societies, every community – feel that their identity is respected, but also that they are part of the society as a whole.

这种不平等是与性别歧视、种族歧视、宗教歧视、残疾人歧视、男女同性恋、双性恋、变性者和跨性别者群体歧视相关的不平等。我的意思是,我们需要一个以凝聚力为目标的社会。我们需要对凝聚力进行投资,以使每个社区----土著社区、社会中的少数群体----感到他们的身份得到尊重,而且他们是整个社会的一部分。

Reporter: Mr. Guterres, the last word is for you. This is a virtual General Assembly, devoid from the usual fanfare, but full of urgency and gravitas and hope. What would you want world leaders and the public to take away from this UNGA75?

记者:古特雷斯先生,我们想问的最后一个问题是:新一届联大会议将以在线方式呈现,没有通常的大张旗鼓,但充满了紧迫性、庄严和希望。你想让世界领导人和公众从75届联大中得到什么?

SG: Well, of course, many things, but if I would have to choose, say priorities, I would say, let’s make sure that we have a global ceasefire. Let’s make sure that we’ll have a vaccine that is a global public good, and people’s vaccine. And let’s make sure that when we rebuild our economies, we do so to reach carbon neutrality in 2050.

古特雷斯:当然,有很多事情。但是如果我必须选择,比如按照优先顺序,我会说,让我们确保全球停火。让我们确保我们将有一种全球公益疫苗和人民疫苗。让我们确保当我们重建我们的经济时,我们所做的一切是为了在2050年达到碳中和。
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发表于 2020-9-18 16:13:33 | 显示全部楼层
thanks for sharing......
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发表于 2020-9-18 22:40:22 | 显示全部楼层
thanks for sharing
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发表于 2020-9-19 22:59:09 | 显示全部楼层
thks for sharing!
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发表于 2020-9-20 09:24:07 | 显示全部楼层
thks for sharing!
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发表于 2020-9-20 20:27:32 | 显示全部楼层
非常感谢楼主分享!
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发表于 2020-9-20 22:31:29 | 显示全部楼层
thanks for sharing
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发表于 2020-9-23 11:09:11 | 显示全部楼层
谢谢分享
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发表于 2020-9-23 13:35:57 | 显示全部楼层
谢谢分享
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发表于 2020-9-27 15:48:30 | 显示全部楼层
联合国成立75周年专访秘书长古特雷斯
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