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[双语互译] 2013-03-17 李克强总理两会记者会

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发表于 2018-3-18 20:30:10 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
十二届全国人大一次会议副秘书长、新闻发言人 傅莹:

女士们,先生们,大家上午好。今天我们很高兴地邀请到新任国务院总理和几位副总理与大家见面。我们先请李克强总理讲话。之后,他会回答大家提出的问题。

Fu Ying: Ladies and gentlemen, good morning. Today we are very happy to have the new premier of the state council and the new vice premiers to meet the press. First, some opening remarks from the premier and then he will take your questions.

国务院总理 李克强:

女士们、先生们,记者朋友们,首先感谢大家在中国两会报道中所付出的辛劳。这里我向大家介绍一下一起来的几位副总理。张高丽副总理。刘延东副总理,汪洋副总理,马凯副总理。

Li Keqiang: Ladies and gentlemen, friends of the press, first I would like to thank you for your hard work in covering the NPC and the CPPCC sessions. Let me present to you the vice premiers while with us this morning, Vice Premier Zhang Gaoli, Vice Premier Liu Yandong, Vice Premier Wang Yang, and Vice Premier Ma kai.

我们衷心感谢人民代表的信任,从担任新职的那一刻起,我就深感这是全国各族人民的重托,是重大责任。我们将忠诚于宪法,忠实于人民,以民之所望为施政所向。把努力实现人民对未来生活的期盼作 为神圣使命,以对法律的敬畏、对人民的敬重、敢于担当、勇于作为的政府,去造福全体人民,建设强盛国家。这几句话是我的开场白,下边就欢迎记者朋友们提问。

We sincerely thank the NPC deputies for their trust. From the moment we took on this new role, I have deeply felt the heavy responsibilities the Chinese people of all nationalities have placed on our shoulders. We will be true to the Constitution, loyal to the people, and the people’s wish will point the direction of our government’s efforts. We will take as our sacred mission the people’s aspirations for a better life. We will revere laws, respect the people, take on our responsibilities and have the courage to get things done so as to benefit the whole nation and build a strong and prosperous country. These are my opening remarks. Now the floor is open for questions.

新加坡《联合早报》:

这次国务院机构改革方案引起外界的高度关注,请问李总理的是,这次改革是不是您理想的方案?怎样达到简政放权和转变政府职能的目标?谢谢。

Lianhe Zaobao from Singapore: The plan for reforming state council institutions has attracted a lot of attention. Mr.Premier, is this your ideal plan? How do you intend to achieve the goals of streamlining government and transforming its functions?


李克强:

你谈到理想,凡事想要做成的话,总是要在理想和现实之间作出可能的选择。这次改革方案核心是转变政府职能,当然也是简政放权。

Li Keqiang: You asked whether this is our ideal plan. I think to succeed in doing anything, one has to strike a proper balance between ideal and reality. The core of the reform plan is to transform government functions, of course it is also about streamlining government and delegate powers to lower levels.

如果说机构改革是政府内部权力的优化配置,那么转变职能则是厘清和理顺政府与市场、与社会之间的关系。说白了,就是市场能办的,多放给市场。社会可以做好的,就交给社会。政府管住、管好它应该管的事。

The institutional reform is about optimizing the distribution of the power within the government and transforming government functions is about redefining and rationalizing the relationship between the government on one hand and market and society on the other. Put simply, we need to leave to market and society what they can do well. And on the part of the government, we need to manage well those matters that fall within our preview.

机构改革不易,转变职能更难,因为它更深刻。我经常在地方调研的时候,常听到这样的抱怨,办个事、创个业要盖几十个公章,群众说恼火得很。

Institutional reform is not easy, transforming government functions will be even more difficult, because it would require more in-depth changes. When I visited local communities, I often heard people complain to me that they would need the approval of several dozen government departments to get something down or to start a business. And peoples are quite frustrated about this.

这既影响了效率,也容易有腐败或者叫寻租行为,损害了政府的形象。所以必须从改革行政审批制度入手来转变政府职能。现在国务院各部门行政审批事项还有1700多项,本届政府下决心要再削减三分之一以上。

Such of state affairs is not good for government efficiency, it might create opportunities for corruption or rent seeking behavior and it would harm the image of the government. Therefore, we will start with reform of the system of government examination and approval. Right now, there are over 1.700 items that still require the approval of state council departments. Within the term of this department, we are determined to cut that figure by at least 1/3.

不是说政府有错位的问题吗?那就把错装在政府身上的手换成市场的手。这是削权,是自我革命,会很痛,甚至有割腕的感觉,但这是发展的需要,是人民的愿望。我们要有壮士断腕的决心,言出必行,说到做到,决不明放暗不放,避重就轻,更不能搞变相游戏。 谢谢。

As for the view expressed by some people that the government have some misplaced roles,  then let’s restore to the market the hand that has misgrown on the government. The reform is about curbing government power, it’s a self-imposed revolution, it would require real sacrifice and this would be painful. But this is demanded by development and wanted by the people. Then we are determined to make that sacrifice. We will keep our promise and match up our words with action. We will never secretly hold on to the powers or shy away from real difficult issues. We will never play any games to get around the requirements of reform. Thank you.

人民日报记者:

总理您好,我是人民日报和人民网的记者。很多人都认为,新一届政府所面临的任务十分艰巨。那么,我想请问总理,您的施政目标是什么?您打算首先去解决的主要问题又是什么?谢谢。

I’m with People’s Daily and its website. Many people believe that your government will face a daunting agenda. Mr.Premier, what are the goals of your government? And what are your priorities on your agenda?

李克强:


这是个大问题啊。关于施政目标,可以说中共十八大已经做出了全面部署,这就是本届政府的施政目标。在我们离实现现代化越近的时候,遇到的风险和挑战就会越多。偌大个中国要解决的事很多,如果说主要问题的话,我想:第一,还是持续发展经济。可以料想,未来中国经济环境依然是严峻复杂,我们要居安思危,也要处变不惊,保持经济稳定增长,防范通货膨胀,控制潜在风险,使中国经济不发生大的波动。

Li Keqiang: You’ ve asked a big question. As for the goals of my government, the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China has set up that in comprehensive detail. Those will be the goals of my government. The nearer we are to our goal of modernization, the more risks and the more challenges we might encounter. China is such a large country, there are naturally so many things for us to handle. But to summarize, the highest priority will be to maintain sustainable economic growth. It can be expected that the economic environment facing China will continue to be serious and complex. We must be prepared for potential adversity and handle the changing situation in a calm fashion. We need to maintain steady economic growth, prevent inflation and control latent risks so that there won’t be big fluctuations in our economic performance.

要努力去实现2020年的目标,测算一下,这需要年均增长7.5%的速度,这不容易。但是,我们有有利的条件,有巨大的内需。关键在推动经济转型,把改革的红利、内需的潜力、创新的活力叠加起来,形成新动力,并且使质量和效益、就业和收入、环境保护和资源节约有新提升,打造中国经济的升级版。

To realize the goal we have set for our country by 2020,  we would have to register an annual  GDP growth rate  of around 7.5%. That will not be easy, but we have favorable conditions in place and enormous potential in domestic demand. The key is to have economic transformation. We need to combine the dividends of reform, the potential of domestic demand and vitality of creativity so that these will together form new drivers of economic growth. We need to enhance the quality and the efficiency of economic growth, raise employment figures and people’s income and enhance environmental protection and the saving of resources so that we will fully upgrade the Chinese economy.

第二,是不断改善民生。也就是说要着力提高城乡居民,特别是低收入者的收入,持续地扩大中等收入的群体。

Secondly, we need to work constantly to improve the people’s lives. That is to say, we need to raise the income of urban and rural populations, especially the low-income group. We need to expand the size of the middle-income group.

如果说政府也是民生政府的话,就要重点保障基本民生,来编织一张覆盖全民的保障基本民生的安全网。其中包括义务教育、医疗、养老保险、住房等,努力逐步把短板补上。还要坚守网底不破,通过完善低保、大病救助等制度,兜住特困群体的基本生活。这些人如果陷入生活的窘境,很容易冲击社会的道德和心理底线,所以政府要尽力,并且调动社会的力量,保障人们的基本生存权利和人格尊严。

Now the government is about improving people’s lives, we need to provide for the basic necessities of our people, we need to create a social safety net that covers the entire population and protect the people’s basic needs. That would involve compulsory education, medical care, old-aged insurance, housing and so on. We need to work hard to gradually strengthen the weak links in our country’s development. Also, we need to improve the subsistence allowance system and assistance for patients suffering from major diseases so that the really poor people can have something to fall back on. If these people experience even more difficulties in their lives that might disrupt the moral and psychological baseline of our society, to do that, the government will make its utmost efforts and also mobilize the forces in our society so as to protect the people’s subsistence rights and their dignity.

第三,是要促进社会公正。公正是社会创造活力的源泉,也是提高人民满意度的一杆秤。

Third, we will promote social fairness. Fairness is the source of societal creativity and the yardstick for improving people’s satisfaction with the work of the government.

政府理应是社会公正的守护者。我们要努力使人人享有平等的机会,不论是来自城市还是农村,不论是来自怎样的家庭背景,只要通过自身的努力,就可以取得应有的回报。不论是怎样的财富创造者,是国企、民企还是个体经营者,只要靠诚信公平竞争,都可以获得应有的成功。

The government should be the guardian of social fairness. We need to work hard to create equal opportunities for everyone: for people from urban and rural areas, and for all those people regardless of their family background, so that people’s hard work will be duly rewarded. And whatever types of wealth creator you are, a state-owned enterprise, a private-enterprise or individually-run business, as long as you compete on a level of playing field and conduct your business in a clean and honest way ,then you will be able to taste success.

解决这三个问题,也可以说是实现三项任务,还需要有三大保障。一是建设创新政府,依靠改革开放使经济社会充满活力;二是建设廉洁政府,增强政府的公信力、执行力和效率;

To meet these three goals and to fulfill these three tasks, the following three things are essential: First, we need to build an innovative government so that we can further unleash  the vitality of our economic society through reform and opening up. Second, we need to build a clean government and make our government more credible, effective and efficient.

三是建设法治政府,这尤为根本,要 把法律放在神圣的位置,无论任何人、办任何事,都不能超越法律的权限,我们要用法治精神来建设现代经济、现代社会、现代政府。

Third, we need to build a government under the rule of law. Laws should have sacred place in our society. No matter who you are, no matter what you intend to do, you must not exceed the boundaries of the law. Under the guidance of the rule of law, we intend to build a modern economy, a modern society and a modern government.

推进这三项任务的实现,应该说要付出艰辛的努力。好在我的前任温家宝总理和已经离任的同事们打下了好的基础,我们对他们表示深深的敬意。我们也坚信,在以习近平同志为总书记的中共中央领导下,依靠13亿人的勤劳、智慧,我们会不断地走向成功,去实现民族复兴、实现现代化。谢谢。

To achieve these three tasks, we would have to make arduous efforts. The good thing is my predecessor Premier Wen Jiabao and my colleagues who have retired have laid a good foundation for our future work. We would like to convey our deep respect for them. I’m convinced that under the leadership of the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping as General Secretary and with the hard efforts and wisdom of the 1.3 billion Chinese people, we will achieve success and achieve the goals of national renewal and modernization. Thank you.

中央人民广播电台记者:

总理,您好。我是中央人民广播电台和中国广播网的记者。我们注意到最近一段时期,一些地方接连曝光腐败案件,我们想问一下总理,新一届政府将会采取哪些具体的措施,让人民对反腐败更有信心?谢谢。

China National Radio and its website: In the recent period, some cases of corruption have been exposed in the different parts of the country. Mr. Premier, what specific measures will your government adopt to increase the people’s confidence in anti-corruption efforts?

李克强:


我要补充对刚才人民日报和人民网提问的感谢,而且也认为你提的问题十分重要。因为腐败和我们政府的性质应该说水火不容,中国政府反对腐败的决心和意志是坚定不移的,这里我也想表个态。

Li Keqiang: Let me add that I want to thank the People’s Daily and its website for raising the last question, and you have raised an important question. Corruption is at complete variance  with the nature of our government. The Chinese government has an unshakable resolve and determination to fight corruption, and here let me make my position clear.

为政清廉应该先从自己做起,己正,才能正人,这是古训,也是真理。自古有所谓“为官发财,应当两道”。既然担任了公职,为公众服务,就要断掉发财的念想。我们愿意接受全社会、接受媒体的监督。

Clean government should start with oneself. Only one is upright him or herself, can he or she ask others to be upright. This is an ancient adage but also a truth. Since ancient times, holding government office and making money have been two separate lanes. Since we have chosen public service, we should give up all thought of making money and we will readily accept the supervision of whole society and media.

我们还要建立和完善不能贪、不敢贪的反腐机制,让腐败行为、腐败分子依法受到严惩,绝不手软。更重要的是,要让权力在公开透明的环境中运行,使人民能够更为充分和有效地进行监督,这也是把权力涂上防腐剂,只能为公,不能私用。

We will also establish a sound mechanism so that officials are not able to and dare not practice corruption, so that we will punish corrupt officials to the full extent of the law. Even more important is to ensure that power will be exercised in an open and transparent fashion so that the people can supervise the government more fully and more effectively, so that we can insulate power against possibilities of abuse.

我们还要用简朴的政府来取信于民,造福人民,要让人民过上好日子,政府就要过紧日子。前一段我收到财政报告,1—2月份,中央财政的收入增幅只有1.6%,可以推想,未来财政再保持高速增长的收入态势不大可能了,但是民生支出是刚性的,不能减,只能增。

And we need to win the trust of the people and bring benefits to them by practicing frugality in government affairs. If the people are to lead good lives, then the government must be put on a tight budget. Recently I have received a report that central government fiscal revenues only increased by 1.6% in January and February of this year. In the future,  you might not see high-speed growth of fiscal revenues in China. However, spending on items related to people’s lives is a must, it will only increase, not decrease.

那就需要削减政府的开支。这里我们也约法三章,本届政府内,一是政府性的楼堂馆所一律不得新建;二是财政供养的人员只减不增;三是公费接待、公费出国、公费购车只减不增。这三条中央政府要带头做起,一级做给一级看。谢谢。

That means we would have to cut spendings on government operations. Here let me lay down three clear rules: Within the term of my government, first we will not use government coffers to construct any new houses, halls or guest houses for the government. Second, the number of people on the government’s payroll will decrease, not increase. Third, spending on official hospitality, overseas trips for official business and the purchase of official vehicles will decrease, not increase. The central government will lead by example, and all lower levels of government must follow suit.Thank you.

美联社记者:

李总理,中国提出与美国构建新型的大国关系,那么中方希望美国做些什么?包括所谓美国战略重心转向亚洲。另外中国是否会停止对美国的黑客攻击?因为这一问题现已引起对美国国家安全的关注。

Premier Li, China has called for building a new type of relationship with the US. What would the Chinese side like the US to do, including with the so-called the US pivot to Asia? Will China stop the cyberhacking against the US since it has now become an issue of American national security?

李克强:


你自己给自己当翻译应该拿双份工资。

Li Keqiang:  You should double your income since you act as your own interpreter.

你提的问题使我想起前两天,我看美国媒体的报道,美方提出了这样一个观点,叫做不同大国之间的冲突并不是必然定律,我欣赏这个观点。

Your question reminds me of a US media report that I have read recently. The US side recently made the point that conflict between major countries is not a law of physics. I subscribe to that view.

我也想起上世纪80年代,到美国去访问,正值美国大选,两党人士我都有接触,他们都跟我说:你放心,无论谁当选,对华合作和一个中国的政策立场不会改变。虽然中美关系几十年来历经风风雨雨,但是一直向前走,为什么?这说明中美关系符合两国人民的根本利益,也符合世界和平发展的大势。

Your question also reminds me of a visit I made to the US in the 1980s. At that time, the US was in election season and I met with people from both of the two main political parties. Both sides assured me that no matter who might come into power, cooperation with China and the commitment to the one-China policy will not change. Over the last decades, the China-US relationship, despite some ups and downs, has generally moved forward. Why? Because the development of our relations needs the fundamental interests of people in both countries and serves the global trend of peace and development.

新一届中国政府会和过去一样,高度重视中美关系,因为这是最大发展中国家和最大发达国家之间的关系,我们愿与奥巴马政府共同去构建新型大国关系。

Like in the past, the new government in China will attach great importance to our relationship with the US, a relationship between the world’s largest developing country and the world’s largest developed country. We will work with the Obama administration to work together to build a new type of major-country relationship.

你问到怎么构建,这使我又想起在中央政府工作后,我经常会见美国的政治家,他们和我谈话,很坦率地说,我们是为美国利益而来,我跟他们说,我是为中国利益工作。既然大家都讲利益,那好,利益就有共同点、汇合点。可以回想一下,30多年前,中美的贸易额不过10亿美元,去年已经达到近5000亿美元。

Now you also asked me about how we can build that kind of new relationship between China and the US. Since I began to work in the central government, I have often met with US political leaders. They have been very candid with me. They said that they came to advance US interests, and I said to them I work for China’s interests. So that gives us something in common and our interests have convergence. Over 30 years ago, trade between China and the US only stood at 1 billion US dollars. Last year, our two-way trade approached 500 billion US dollars.

我们会继续推进互利共赢。我想未来中美在贸易、投资方面的机会、空间比过去30年会更大,会给两国人民带来实实在在的利益。

Going forward, we will continue to pursue mutual benefit and the trade and investment opportunities and space for pursuing such cooperation will only be bigger than the last 30 plus years. And this would deliver tangible benefits to people in both countries.

当然,我不否认中美之间有分歧,但只要我们相互尊重对方的重大关切,管控好分歧,就可以使共同利益超越分歧。中美创造的独特的文明、文化也可以互学互鉴,增进两国人民之间的友谊,夯实中美关系的社会基础。

Admittedly, there are some differences between China and the US. But as long as we respect each other’s major concerns and manage our differences, then our common interests will far outweigh the differences that we might have. China and the US have our own distinctive civilizations and cultures, we can learn from each other and we need to  deepen the friendship between the peoples of our two countries so as to build a stronger social foundation for our bilateral relation.

至于说到亚太地区,这可以说是中美利益交汇、集结最密切的地区,中美都表示要维护地区的稳定、促进繁荣,我希望言行一致,从亚太地区做起、做好,来构建新型大国关系,这也有利于亚太和世界的和平与发展。

The Asia-Pacific region is one in which the interests of China and the US intersect the most. Both countries have stated that we want to uphold regional stability and promote regional prosperity. We hope that these commitments will be reflected in action. China and the US should have sound interactions in the Asia-Pacific region and starting from this we can move to build a new type of relationship between major-countries. That will also be good for peace and development in the Asia-Pacific region and the world at large.

你说到的黑客攻击问题,这可以说是一个世界性的问题,中国本身就是主要的被黑客攻击的受害者,中方不仅不支持,而且反对黑客攻击行为。刚才你说的话我怎么有有罪推定的感觉啊?我想我们还是少一些没有根据的相互指责,多做一些维护网络安全的实事。谢谢。

You also asked about hacker attacks. This is a worldwide problem. And in fact, China itself is a main target of such attacks. China does not support, indeed, we are opposed to such activities. Your question I sensed the presumption of guilt, I think we should not make groundless accusations against each other and spend more time doing practical things that will contribute to cyber security. Thank you.

中央电视台记者:

总理,您好。我是中央电视台和中国网络电视台的记者。您多次提到说改革是中国最大的红利,我最近也注意到在一些主要的网站上,包括中央电视台联合多家网站推出的我有问题问总理的网页上,好多网友都在讨论这句话,也有足够的期待。但是我们知道,现在中国改革已经进入了深水区,社会普遍上说深水区的改革相当困难,可能会触及到一些利益群体,甚至这些利益群体可能会形成对改革的阻力。在这种情况下怎么通过改革来释放红利?对下一步推进改革您有什么样的考虑?或者着力点主要在哪些方面?谢谢。

China Central Television and CNTV: Mr. Premier, you have often talked about the fact that reform will pay the biggest dividends. Recently there have has been many discussion on the website hosted by CCTV and some other media organizations about “People’s questions for the Premier ”. There is a view in our society that reforming China has to navigate uncharted waters and advancing reform would be difficult because we would have to encounter vested interests and these interests might stand in the way of further reform. Mr.Premier, how do you intend to unleash the dividends of the reform and how do you intend to push forward your reform agenda?

李克强:


我之所以说改革是最大的红利,是因为我国社会主义市场经济还在完善过程中,靠改革进一步解放生产力还有巨大的空间,让改革的红利惠及全体人民还有巨大的潜力。

Li Keqiang: I have often said that reform pays the biggest dividend for China. It is because there is still room for improvement in our socialist market economy. There is great space for unleashing productivity through reform and there is great potential for making sure the benefits of the reform will reach the entire population.

改革贵在行动,喊破嗓子不如甩开膀子。我们要坚持市场化的改革方向,如果说到重点的话,那就是围绕我前面讲的三项任务去推进能够牵一发动全身的改革。

In advancing reform, the important thing is to take action. Talking the talk is not as good as walking the walk. We need to pursue market-oriented reforms. You have asked what are the key reforms that we will drive, I have outlined three priorities of my government. In light of these, we will choose areas for reform that will make an immediate and systemic impact.

推动经济转型要注意发挥财政、金融、价格改革的杠杆性作用,推动公开、透明、规范、完整的财政预算制度改革,这可以使人民更有效地监督财政收支、优化支出状况,更多向民生倾斜。

We will pursue economic transformation. We will make full use of fiscal, financing, pricing and other policy instruments. And we will pursue reform of the budgetary system to make it more open, transparent, standardized and inclusive. We will improve the people’s effectiveness in supervising government expenditure and revenues, improve the structure of government expenditure and revenues, and tilt government spending in favor of areas that will have a direct benefit for the people’s lives.

在金融领域要推进利率、汇率市场化改革,发展多层次资本市场,提高直接融资的比重,而且要保护投资者,尤其是中小投资者的合法权益。我们还要用开放来带动转型,重点是进一步开放服务业。当然,中国的贸易,包括商品的贸易,未来几年都会继续增长,这对世界是一个巨大的机会,对于中国企业也是在公平竞争当中提升企业层级的好机会。

In the financial sector, we will pursue market-oriented reform of the interest rate and the exchange rate, we will develop a multi-tiered capital market and raise the share of direct financing. We will also protect the lawful rights and interests of investors, especially small and medium investors. We will also drive economic transformation through opening up. The important thing is to further open up the services sector. Of course, looking ahead, our trade, especially trade in goods will continue to grow and even at a high speed in the years ahead. That will create enormous opportunities for the world and help Chinese enterprises to upgrade themselves in the course of fair competition.

改善民生离不开收入分配制度的改革。我们应当敢于直面城乡、区域两个最大的差距。

We will improve the people’s well being and to so that we need to reform the income distribution system. We need to confront the two biggest gap in Chinese society, the gap between urban and rural areas and the gap between different regions.

特别是直面有八亿多农民和五亿多市民之间的涉及人口最多的差距,采取措施,逐步使其缩小。还要推动社会保障制度的改革,逐步提高统筹的层次,使医疗、养老保险的报销、接续能够逐渐实现异地进行,这也有利于劳动力的流动。

In particular, we need to encounter the former gap as it involves more than 800 million rural residents and more than 500 million urban residents. We need to take action to gradually narrow this gap. We also need to enhance reform of social security system. We need to raise the level at which social security funds are managed, and in the area of medical and old-aged insurance. We should gradually make sure that people can reimburse their expenses and transfer their accounts to the places that they currently reside. This will also contribute to labor mobility in China.

要推动促进社会公正的改革,不断地清理有碍社会公正的规则,而且要使明规则战胜潜规则。同时,推动民营资本顺利有效地进入金融、能源、铁路等领域,还要对社会领域的相关改革进行推进,促进社会的纵向流动。比如说现在高等学校里农村的学生比例偏少,我们要逐步提高比例,让更多勤奋好学的农村孩子感受到希望。

We also need to pursue reform to promote social fairness. We will reveal and eliminate regulations that impede social fairness so that transparent rules will triumph hidden rules. At the same time, we will allow private capital to move smoothly and effectively enter financing, energy, railway and other sectors. We will pursue reform in the social sector so as to promote upward mobility. In some universities in China, the share of rural students is quite low. We need to gradually raise that so as to give hardworking rural students hope.

当然,改革既要突出重点,也要统筹协调。我们要推进各个领域的全面改革,要推动中国特色社会主义事业不断前进。

In pursuing reform, we need to focus on the key areas and ensure overall coordination. We want to pursue comprehensive reform covering all sectors so as to make us clearer to the goal of socialism with Chinese characteristics.

至于你刚才说到改革进入了深水区,也可以说是攻坚期,的确是因为它要触动固有的利益格局。现在触动利益往往比触及灵魂还难。但是,再深的水我们也得趟,因为别无选择,它关乎国家的命运、民族的前途。这需要勇气、智慧、韧性。所幸的是,这些可以从我们的人民当中去汲取,来使改革迈出坚实的步伐。谢谢。

You said that in pursuing reform, we now have to navigate uncharted waters. We may also have to confront some protracted problems. This is because we have to shake up vested interests, sometimes stirring the interests is more difficult than stirring the soul. But however deep the water may be, we will wade into the water, this is because we have no alternative. Reform concerns the destiny of our country, the future of our nation. In pursuing the reform, we need to have courage, wisdom and tenacity. But we can get this from the people and make solid progress in reform. Thank you.

台湾《联合报》记者:

谢谢主持人。李总理您好。近年来,两岸关系获得了很大的发展,请问总理您对于未来进一步推动两岸关系和平发展有什么样的规划和愿景?也就是说新形势下两岸关系的机遇和挑战在哪里?谢谢。

United Daily News of Taiwan. In recent years, there has been major strides in cross-straits relations. Mr Premier what are your plans and vision for further promoting the peaceful development of cross-straits relations in the time ahead, and under the new situation, will there be any new opportunities and new challenges confronting cross-straits relations?

李克强:


两岸同属一个中国,居住在两岸的是骨肉同胞。“同胞”这个词、这个理念在中华文化当中是根深蒂固的,我认为这也是中华民族五千年生生不息的根源。所谓打断骨头还连着筋,同胞之间、手足之情,没有解不开的结。

Li Keqiang: The two sides of the Taiwan straits belong to one and same China. The residents on the two sides of the straits are fellow compatriots. The concept of compatriot is a deep-rooted one in the Chinese culture. And I believe that this is the reason that our nation has thrived uninterruptedly for five thousand years. Bones may be broken , but not sinews. Because we are fellow compatriots. Between us, there is no knot cannot be untied.

我们高兴地看到,这些年两岸关系向着和平发展的方向发展,两岸合作的成果在不断扩大。我想,只要维护一个中国,维护同胞之情,两岸关系发展的空间和潜力巨大。

We are happy to see that in recent years, cross-straits relations have enjoyed peaceful development and cross-straits cooperation has yielded good fruits. I think as long as we maintain the one-China principle and the bond of compatriots between the two sides, then there will be great space and potential for advancing cross-straits relations.

我们应该充分地利用当前的机遇,而且使未来的机遇不断地扩大。新一届政府将会履行上届政府所做的承诺,并且要努力寻求合作的新的推动支点。在推动大陆进一步开放和发展当中,会更多地考虑台胞的福祉和利益,我们愿意与台湾共享发展的机遇。

We should make full use of the current opportunities facing us and work to expand these opportunities going forward. My government will fulfill the commitments made by the last government. And at the same time, work hard to identify new pillars of cross-straits cooperation. In the course of opening up and development of the mainland, we will give more consideration to the well-being and interests of our Taiwan compatriots. So that the two sides can sharing the fruits by our country’s development.

台湾和台胞在发展当中,可以更多地利用我们大陆发展的机遇。大陆和台湾是我们共同的家园,把它一道维护好、建设好,使其花团锦簇,我想花好总有月圆时。也请你转达我对台湾同胞真诚的问候和祝福。谢谢。

And in the course of their development,Taiwan and Taiwan compatriots should make better use of the development opportunities presented by the mainland. Both the mainland and Taiwan belong to the our common homeland. We need to maintain and develop well this common homeland so that it would be full of flowers. When flowers are in full bloom, there will be a time for the moon to be full again. Taking this opportunity, I would like you to convey my sincere greetings and best regards to our compatriots in Taiwan.

新华社记者:

总理,您好。当前社会上有很多关于城镇化的讨论,也出现了不同的声音。有人认为城镇化是现代化进程自然而然的结果,所以没有必要主动去推进。也有人担心随着城镇化的推进,会有很多农民失去土地,进而形成一个新的阶层,城市贫民阶层。不知道总理怎么看?谢谢。

Xinhua News Agency. Currently there is much talk about urbanization and some people have expressed different views. Some believe that urbanization is the logical product of modernization. And therefore, the government need not push this deliberately. And many people are concerned that this process will deprive many rural residents of their land and create a new class, the urban poor. Mr Premier , what is your view on this? Thank you.

李克强:


这又是一个大问题,我尽量用短时间来回答这个问题。你刚才讲到了社会上对城镇化有许多议论,我大都听到了,也很关注。因为中国的城镇化,其规模之大为人类历史所未有,不仅对中国的发展很重要,而且会影响世界。这些议论、担心,我想都是为使城镇化的路走得更好。

Li Keqiang: Another big question, but I will try to answer it succinctly. I’m aware of most of the talk about urbanization. And I take them seriously. The scale of urbanization in China is unprecedented in human history. Urbanization is important to China’s development and it will affect the world. There is some talk about urbanization and some concerns expressed about it. I think people generally want us to make steady progress in urbanization.

城镇化是现代化的必然趋势,也是广大农民的普遍愿望,它不仅可以带动巨大的消费和投资需求,创造更多的就业机会,其直接作用还是富裕农民、造福人民。我在农村调研的时候,经常和农民们聊天,他们在谈到对未来生活的愿望时,不少人用一句简洁的话来表达,说是希望过上和城里人一样好的日子。

Urbanization is the logical product of modernization and general aspiration of rural residents in China. Urbanization will unleash enormous consumption and investment demand and create many job opportunities. More directly, it will help to enrich farmers and benefit the whole nation. When I visited rural communities, people often talked to me about their aspiration for life in the future. And the folk put it in very simple language. They say we hope to lead the same kind of life as our urban counterparts.

这在过去对农民来说是奢望。现在中国城镇化的大门给农民打开了,农民可以进城从事二三产业,而留在农村的,通过适度规模经营,都可以增收致富。现在每年有一千多万农民转移到城镇,这是必然的趋势。

In the past, this was just a dream. But urbanization has opened the door for the dream to come true. Some rural residents may wish to migrate to the cities to engage in secondary or tertiary industries. Others might want to stay in their villages and engage in farming operations of appropriate scale. Either way, they can make more money and become richer. Every year, over 10 million rural residents are migrating to the cities. This is an inevitable trend.

我们强调的新型城镇化,是以人为核心的城镇化。现在大约有2.6亿农民工,使他们中有愿望的人逐步融入城市,是一个长期复杂的过程,要有就业支撑,有服务保障。

We stress that we want to pursue a new type of urbanization. The strategy will put the people at the heart of it. Right now, there are over two hundred and sixty million migrant workers in cities. For those of them that want to integrate into urban life, we will gradually make it possible for them to do so. But this will be a long term and complex process that requires us the support of job creation and provision of services.

而且城镇化也不能靠摊大饼,还是要大、中、小城市协调发展,东、中、西部地区因地制宜地推进。还要注意防止城市病,不能一边是高楼林立,一边是棚户连片。本届政府下决心要再改造一千万户以上各类棚户区,这既是解决城市内部的二元结构,也是降低城镇化的门槛。尤为重要的是,新型城镇化必须和农业现代化相辅相成,要保住耕地红线,保障粮食安全,保护农民利益。

Urbanization is not about building big sprawling cities, we need to ensure proper balance between large, medium and small cities and the eastern, central and western regions of China should pursue urbanization in light of their local conditions. It’s also important to prevent the typical malaise that might plague big cities so that we won’t have a situation where skyscrapers co-exist with shanty towns. Within the term of this government , we are determined to re-develop over ten million different types of shanty dwellings so as to overcome the bifurcation within cities and to lower the threshold of urbanization. It is also very important for the new type of urbanization to go hand in hand with agricultural modernization. Therefore, we need to keep the size of farmland above the redline of 120 million hectares, ensure food security and protect farmers’ interests.

城镇化是一个复杂的系统工程,会带来经济和社会深刻的变化,需要各项配套改革去推进。在推进过程中,还会遇到并且必须解决各种问题。据说这次两会期间,关于城镇化的建议和提案已经500多件了,还在统计之中,我们将会认真地一一研究,使城镇化能够积极稳妥地向前推进。谢谢。

Urbanization is a complex and big project. This will trigger profound changes in our economy and society. And it needs to be supported by integrated reforms in many different areas. We need to overcome the various problems that might crop up in the course of urbanization. I know that according to the statistics currently available, there are about five hundred suggestions and proposals about urbanization made during the NPC and CPPCC sessions. We will review all of them very carefully and pursue urbanization in a steady, active and prudent way. Thank you.

法国《费加罗报》记者:

现在环境污染和食品安全,包括北京的空气质量状况,已经成为严重的问题。我想请问,在中国政府保持经济增长的同时,能否同时解决这些问题?中国的公众和舆论是否可以更多地监督政府在这方面的措施?谢谢。

Nowadays,environment, pollution and food safety have become a very very serious issue. We can see the sky here in Beijing at this weekend. Is it possible for the Chinese government to solve these problems while maintaining the speed of economic development? Will it give more space for Chinese people and media to monitor these issues?

李克强:


我前面讲,要打造中国经济的升级版,就包括在发展中要让人民呼吸洁净的空气,饮用安全的水,食用放心食品。刚才记者先生讲到,一段时期以来,北京、实际上中国东部比较大范围出现雾霾天气,我和大家一样,心情都很沉重。对这一长期积累形成的问题,我们要下更大的决心,以更大的作为去进行治理。特别是对重点地区,已经查明的人为因素,要限期治理,对于水污染、土地污染的状况,要摸清底数,进行坚决的整治。至于食品安全,那可以说是天大的事,直接关系到人们的生活质量和身体健康。政府应该对假冒伪劣和黑心食品坚决进行查处,并且让不法分子付出昂贵的代价。

Li Keqiang: I said earlier that we want to fully upgrade the Chinese economy. That also includes that in the course of development, we will do our best to make sure that our people can breathe clear air and have safe drinking water and food. You talked about the weather in Beijing. In the recent period, not just Beijing, but extensive parts of eastern China have experienced some hazy weather. And like everyone of you, I was quite upset about that. This is a problem that has built up over a long period of time. This government will show even greater resolve and take more vigorous efforts to clean up such pollution. As for the key regions and the man-made factors that we have identified, we will set deadlines for these to be addressed. As for water and soil pollution, we will need to develop a clear understanding of the extent of the problem and take resolute steps to improve the situation. Food safety is a matter of utmost importance because it has a direct bearing on the people’s quality of life and health. The government will take strong measures to punish the heartless producers of substandard and fake food. So that they will pay a high price.

我还担心的是,粗放的发展方式能不能加快得到转变。我曾经说过,绿水青山贫穷落后不行,但殷实富裕环境恶化也不行。我们需要进一步创新发展理念,推动科学发展。一是不能再欠新账,包括提高环保的门槛;二是加快还旧账,包括淘汰落后产能等。政府应当铁腕执法、铁面问责。

I’m also concerned whether we can make rapid progress towards shifting the inefficient model of growth. I’ve said it’s no good to be poor in a beautiful environment but nor is it any good to be well-off but live with the consequences of environmental degradation. We need to develop a new thinking on development and pursue development in a scientific way. First, we shouldn’t incur any new problems and we need to raise environmental threshold. Second, we need to speed up efforts to overcome long-standing problems which include facing out backward production facilities. We will face the situation and punish the offenders without mercy and enforce the law with an iron fist.

我们不能以牺牲环境来换取人民并不满意的增长,所以这里很重要的是,不论是污染的状况、食品问题,还是治理和处置的效果,都要公开、透明,让公众、媒体能够充分、有效地加以监督。

We shouldn’t pursue economic growth at the expense of the environment. Such growth won’t satisfy the people. It is very important that the extensive pollution, the real food safety situation, the results of our clean-up efforts must be made public so that the people and media organizations can supervise the government’s efforts more fully and more effectively.

这也是形成一种倒逼机制,来硬化企业和政府的责任,也可以增强人们自身的防护意识。既然同呼吸、就要共奋斗,大家都尽一把力。政府则是要以更大的决心来让人民放心。谢谢。

This will also in a way force enterprise and government to firm up our own responsibilities and help the people to take some precautionary measures. Since we breathe the same air, then we must work hard together. Everyone should pitch in. as far as the government is concerned, we will show greater resolve and take actions to reassure the people. Thank you!

中国日报记者:

总理,您好。刚才您谈到了很多改革的目标和举措,我们也一直十分关注中国劳教制度的改革。我们也想知道,中国劳教制度改革有没有一个时间表?谢谢您。

China Daily and its website. Mr Premier ,you talked a lot about the goals and steps of reform. We pay close attention to the reform of the re-education through labor system. Mr Premier, is there a timetable for reforming it. Thank you.

李克强:


请允许我简要地回答你。有关中国劳教制度的改革方案,有关部门正在抓紧研究制定,年内有望出台。谢谢。

Li Keqiang: Let me answer you question very concisely. The relative authorities are working intensively on the reform of re-education through labor system. And the plan might be unveiled before the end of the year. Thank you.

凤凰卫视记者:

总理您好。刚刚我注意到一个细节,您在回答所有媒体同业问题的时候,您的双手打手势超过了有30几次。这一幕让我印象深刻,想起了11年前,当时采访时任河南省长的您展现出来的自信和睿智。我想问的是,两年前您到访香港,带去了中央政府的大礼包,未来有哪些新的举措?另外,我要特别说的是,我也是安徽省籍的人,但我是一个出生在台湾、工作在香港、在过去十多年来一直穿梭在两岸三地的华文媒体人。我身旁的人万分渴望对您本人有进一步的了解,能不能借这一个机会,谈谈您从政生涯一路走来从最基层到最高层您个人的情怀,谢谢总理。

Phoenix TV of Hong Kong. I noticed one detail Mr Premier. In the course of the press conference, you have raised your hand over thirty times which reminds me of the meeting I have with you eleven years ago. At that time, you were working in Henan province. And during that meeting ,I was impressed by your confidence and wisdom. The question is in 2011, you visited Hong-Kong, and brought along a large gift box from the central government. What new measures will your government take to support Hong Kong’s development? And I, myself, and my family also descended from Anhui province. I was born in Taiwan. I’m working in Hong Kong. And over the past decade and more, I have shuttled frequently between the mainland, Taiwan and Hong Kong. I know that people want to get a fuller understanding of you as a person. You have worked your way up from the lowest level of Chinese society to the highest   echelon of government. Can you talk about your personal experience and your personal philosophy? Thank you.

李克强:


刚才记者先生提醒我,手势多了,引起人们的注意力,就会不太注意听我回答问题的内容了。不过你刚才讲的三地都是容易引起我情感的问题。

Li Keqiang: Thank you for the polite reminder that if I raise me hand too frequently, people will focus on my body movement, not what I say. But you asked a question about the three places, these can raise a lot of emotions within me.

我记得前年到香港访问,宣布中央政府支持香港繁荣,推动两地深化合作的一系列政策,你把它比喻为“大礼包”倒是很形象。不过这个“大礼包”的干货要一个一个地打开,才能用好、用足,还需要两地共同努力。现在已经取得了一些效果,中央政府会尽力去推进。

In 2011, I made a visit to Hong Kong. During the trip, I announced the central government’s policies for supporting Hong Kong’s prosperity and deepening cooperation between the mainland and Hong Kong. You described these policies as a large gift box. I think that’s a pretty good analogy. But to open the gift box and to take out the solid gifts therein, we need to work together, both the mainland and Hong Kong. Actually, some of these policies have already paid off. And the central government will continue to do its best to advance our work.

我访港的时候,深感“一国两制”下的香港充满活力,香港同胞勤劳、智慧,香港社会包容、开放、充满活力,内地和香港合作空间还很大。凡是有利于港澳同胞福祉增加、内地和港澳合作深化、维护港澳长期繁荣的事,中央政府都会尽心尽力地去做。

During the trip in 2011 ,I was deeply impressed by the fact that Hong Kong was brimming with vitality on the One Country and Two Systems. Our compatriots in Hong Kong are hard-working and smart. Hong Kong society is open, inclusive and vibrant. And there is still space for the deepening of the cooperation between the mainland and Hong Kong. The central government will do its level best to advance those initiatives that will enhance the well-being of our compatriots in Hong Kong and Macao, that will deepen the cooperation between the mainland and Hong Kong and Macao, that will contribute to the long-term prosperity of Hong Kong and Macao.

你问到个人经历,也讲到安徽。我曾经是安徽凤阳的插队知青,很难忘那一段和乡亲们度过的艰难岁月。那里当时是中国农村出了名的穷地方,也是后来中国农村承包制改革的发源地。

You asked about my personal experience and mentioned Anhui in your question. I was once a sent-to-town youth to Fengyang County in Anhui province. I won’t forget the hard times I have spent with the local peasants. Fengyang was known for its poverty across the country and its also the place where the rural house-hold responsibility system reform originated.

我还记得1977年高考后,我是在田头锄地时得到高考录取通知消息的。正是改革开放改变了我们国家的命运,使亿万农民脱贫,也使许许多多的人出现了重大的人生转折。现在改革的重任落到了我们这一代肩上,我想我们要尽力使改革的红利惠及全体人民,使老年人安度晚年、年轻人充满希望,使我们的国家生机勃勃。

I still remember, in 1977, when I was working in the fields, I learned of the news that I was enrolled by university. Reform and opening-up has changed the destiny of our country and lifted hundreds of millions of peasants out of poverty. It has also changed the life course of many individuals, including me. Now the heavy responsibility of reform has fallen on the shoulders of our generation. We will do our best to make sure that the dividends of reform will reach everyone in our society so that the elderly will enjoy their old age and the young will be full of hope and our country will be full of vitality.

我没有更多的时间来讲述个人的经历,我想说的是,在我个人的经历,在读书、做事、文化熏陶当中,悟出一个道理,就是行大道、民为本、利天下。这九个字不是什么典籍的原话,是我的心得。

I don’t have time to talk more about my personal experience. But in my life, through reading, through handling various matters, and through my culture up-bringing, I have learned the following which is, to follow the great way, to put the people first and to benefit all on the heaven. You cannot find these exact words in any classical works. These are things I have learned in my life.

我坚信做人要正、办事要公,才能利国利民。谢谢。

I’m convinced that only by being upright, being conducting oneself, and only by being fair in handling affairs, can one benefit the country and benefit the people. Thank you.

傅莹:

时间关系,是不是再提一个问题?

Fu Ying: I think we are running over time. Perhaps we will just have one last question.

李克强:

尊重主持人,也是尊重女性,尊重记者。

Li Keqiang: I defer to the moderator and a lady and I respect everyone of you here.

俄新社记者:

总理,您好。你刚才谈到中美关系问题,我不能不问关于中俄关系的问题。中国国家主席习近平即将访问俄罗斯,您作为新一届总理,您怎么评价中俄关系?将在哪些方面推动中俄合作?谢谢。

Russian International News Agency. You’ve answered a question about China-US relations. So let me raise one about China-Russia relations. President Xi Jingping will soon make a visit to Russia. Mr. Premier, how do you look at China-Russia relations? And how do you intend to push forward cooperation between the two countries?

李克强:


不久习近平主席将访问俄罗斯,这本身就说明中俄关系的重要性。我们两国互为最大的邻国。我还记得去年访问俄罗斯,俄罗斯领导人同我会面的时候,直截了当地说,我们之间的政治关系很好了,没有什么谈不拢的了,大家是不是多用点精力谈务实合作的事。我在和俄罗斯地方民间人士接触过程当中,也深感他们迫切希望能够提升中俄务实合作的水平,发挥中俄经贸互补的优势。我还记得出席一个经贸方面的论坛,当时我说,中俄双边贸易额是800亿美元,我就憧憬,我们共同努力,再翻几番没有问题,而且可以实现共赢。

Li Keqiang: Soon President Xi Jinping will make a visit to Russia. This in itself shows how important our bilateral relationship is. China and Russia are each other’s biggest neighbour. I remember when I made a visit to Russia last year myself, the Russian leaders were very straight forward with me. They said :“ Our political relations are in very good shape. There is nothing that we don’t agree on. So why don’t we spend more time talking about enhancing our practical cooperation? And in my contacts with local government personnel and people from outside the government, I get the strong sense that they have a strong desire to raise the level of practical cooperation and leverage the economic complementarities between the two sides. I remember during the trip, I attended an economic and trade forum. I said that currently, the bilateral trade stood at eighty billion US dollars. For our joint efforts, maybe we can more than double that in the years ahead. And that will deliver benefits to both sides.

中俄推动务实合作,在地区和国际事务中加强沟通协调,不仅有利于巩固双边关系,而且有利于维护地区和世界的和平稳定。事实上,中国和周边国家一直在推动互利合作、互利共赢、发挥互相优势的关系迈上新的台阶,使亚太地区和平发展,合作成为不可阻挡的潮流。

China and Russia will keep advancing our practical cooperation and step up communication and coordination on regional and international affairs. This will help to not just consolidate our bilateral relationships, but maintain peace and stability in our region and the whole world. Let me say that China has been working with our neighboring countries to advance mutually beneficial cooperation. And to take such cooperation to a new level by drawing on our respective strength, so that we can make peace, development and cooperations in Asia and in the Asia Pacific an irresistible trend.

刚才主持人说这是最后一个问题了,今天在场的有很多来自国外的记者朋友没有机会一一提问,我想再讲几句。这一段时间,我一直在看有关中国问题的报道,当然主要是国际舆论所关注的一些问题。

Our moderator has said this is going to be the last question. And I know many foreign journalists present today haven't got an opportunity to raise questions. So let me just say a few more words. Recently I’ve been following very closely news reports about China, including the issues discussed by foreign media organizations.

大概主要是两方面:一个是担心中国经济能不能够持续发展;还有一个是担心中国发展起来会不会恃强称霸。

I think there are two main concerns. First, whether the Chinese economy will continue to grow sustainably. And secondly, whether a stronger China will become more assertive and even seek hegemony?

这两种疑问我认为都可以打消。中国有条件保持经济持续健康发展,不断推进社会进步。中国有13亿多人口,实现现代化还有很长的路要走,需要持久的国际和平环境。即使中国发展强大起来,我们也不会称霸,因为中国在近现代历史的惨痛遭遇中有感受,己所不欲,勿施于人,这是中国人的信条。

I think these two concerns are really unnecessary. China is capable of achieving sustainable and healthy economic development and pursuing social progress. And there are more than one point three billion people in this country. So we are on a long journey towards modernization. For that, we would require an international environment of lasting peace. Even if China becomes stronger, we will not seek hegemony. Because we have learned from our own bitter experience in the modern period that one should not impose on others what he himself does not desire. This is an article of faith for us.

这里我想强调,走和平发展道路是中国坚定不移的决心,维护国家的主权和领土完整,也是中国不可动摇的意志。这两条原则并行不悖,也符合维护地区稳定和世界和平秩序的规则。中国作为发展中的大国,愿意承担相应的国际义务,同世界各国一道,携手努力,守住21世纪的全球和平,繁荣扩大。谢谢各位。

Let me underscore here that China has an unwavering commitment to peaceful development. We also have an unshakable determination to safeguard our country’s sovereignty and territorial integrity. These two are not contradictory to each other. In fact, they are essential to regional stability and world peace. China will shoulder our due international obligations as a large developing country. We are willing to work with the countries of the world to maintain global peace and expand global prosperity in the 21st century. Thank you.

刚才主持人又向我“示表”了,时间到了。我知道许多人可能很早就来到这里了,如果说没有新闻记者的话,这个世界上就没有新闻了。你们很辛苦,也请保重,我们还有机会再见。

The moderator has again indicated to me that our time is really up. I know many of you came to this hall very early in the day. I know that without the press, we would have no news stories to read. So I really appreciate your hard work. I hope you will take care. I’m sure we will have future opportunities to meet with each other.

再次谢谢各位,再见。

Thank you again. Good bye.

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