David 发表于 2019-1-23 13:35:55

2019-01-21 国家统计局2018年国民经济运行情况发布会

2019年1月21日(星期一)上午10时,国务院新闻办公室举行新闻发布会,请国家统计局局长宁吉喆介绍2018年国民经济运行情况,并答记者问。

以下为全程实录及同声传译:

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2018年经济运行保持在合理区间,发展的主要预期目标较好完成。2018年,在以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导下,各地区各部门认真贯彻落实党中央、国务院各项决策部署,坚持稳中求进工作总基调,坚持新发展理念,坚持推动高质量发展,坚持以供给侧结构性改革为主线,凝心聚力,攻坚克难,经济社会发展的主要预期目标较好完成,三大攻坚战开局良好,供给侧结构性改革深入推进,改革开放力度加大,人民生活持续改善,国民经济运行保持在合理区间,总体平稳、稳中有进态势持续显现,朝着实现全面建成小康社会的目标继续迈进。

In 2018, under the strong leadership of the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping as the core, all regions and departments implemented the decisions and arrangements made by the CPC Central Committee and the State Council, adhered to the general working guideline of making progress while maintaining stability, committed to the new development philosophy, promoted high quality development, focused on the supply-side structural reform, stayed united and overcame difficulties. As a result, main goals for economic and social development were achieved, the “three critical battles” of preventing and defusing financial risks, conducting targeted poverty alleviation and controlling pollution got off to a good start, the supply-side structural reform was advanced, reform and opening up was deepened, and people’s livelihood continued to improve. The national economy performed within an appropriate range, sustained the momentum of progress in overall stability, and strived towards building a moderately prosperous society in all respects.

初步核算,全年国内生产总值900309亿元,按可比价格计算,比上年增长6.6%,实现了6.5%左右的预期发展目标。分季度看,一季度同比增长6.8%,二季度增长6.7%,三季度增长6.5%,四季度增长6.4%。分产业看,第一产业增加值64734亿元,比上年增长3.5%;第二产业增加值366001亿元,增长5.8%;第三产业增加值469575亿元,增长7.6%。

According to the preliminary estimation, the gross domestic product (GDP) of China was 90,030.9 billion yuan in 2018, an increase of 6.6 percent at comparable prices over the previous year, achieving the set target of around 6.5 percent growth for the year. Specifically, the year-on-year growth of GDP was 6.8 percent for the first quarter, 6.7 percent for the second quarter, 6.5 percent for the third quarter, and 6.4 percent for the fourth quarter. The value added of the primary industry was 6,473.4 billion yuan, up by 3.5 percent over the previous year; that of the secondary industry was 36,600.1 billion yuan, up by 5.8 percent; and that of the tertiary industry was 46,957.5 billion yuan, up by 7.6 percent.

一、粮食保持高产,畜牧业总体稳定

1. Grain Output Maintained High Yields and Production of Animal Husbandry Grew Stably.

全年全国粮食总产量65789万吨,比上年下降0.6%,仍是历史高产年,连续4年保持在65000万吨以上。其中,夏粮产量13878万吨,早稻产量2859万吨,秋粮产量49052万吨。棉花产量610万吨,比上年增长7.8%。种植结构进一步优化,优质稻谷播种面积扩大,玉米播种面积继续调减,大豆种植面积增加,棉花、糖料、中草药材作物种植面积增加。

The total grain output in 2018 was 657.89 million tons, down by 0.6 percent over that of last year, still a harvest year on record, maintaining above 650.00 million tons for four consecutive years. The total output of summer grain was 138.78 million tons; early rice, 28.59 million tons; autumn grain, 490.52 million tons. The total output of cotton was 6.10 million tons, up by 7.8 percent over that of last year. The planting structure was further optimized. The sown area of quality rice further increased and the sown area of corn continued to reduce. The cultivated area of soybean increased and that of cotton, sugar crop and Chinese herbal medicine plants increased.

全年猪牛羊禽肉产量8517万吨,比上年略降0.3%。其中,猪肉产量5404万吨,下降0.9%;牛肉产量644万吨,增长1.5%;羊肉产量475万吨,增长0.8%;禽肉产量1994万吨,增长0.6%。生猪存栏42817万头,比上年下降3.0%;生猪出栏69382万头,下降1.2%。

In 2018, the total output of pork, beef, mutton and poultry was 85.17 million tons, slightly down by 0.3 percent over that of last year. Specifically, the total output of pork was 54.04 million tons, down by 0.9 percent; beef 6.44 million tons, up by 1.5 percent; mutton 4.75 million tons, up by 0.8 percent; poultry 19.94 million tons, up by 0.6 percent. There were 428.17 million pigs registered, a year-on-year decrease of 3.0 percent and 693.82 million pigs slaughtered, a decrease of 1.2 percent.

二、工业生产平稳增长,新产业增长较快

2. Industrial Production Developed Steadily with Fairly Fast Growth of New Industries.

全年全国规模以上工业增加值比上年实际增长6.2%,增速缓中趋稳。分经济类型看,国有控股企业增加值增长6.2%,集体企业下降1.2%,股份制企业增长6.6%,外商及港澳台商投资企业增长4.8%。分三大门类看,采矿业增加值增长2.3%,制造业增长6.5%,电力、热力、燃气及水生产和供应业增长9.9%。高技术制造业、战略性新兴产业和装备制造业增加值分别比上年增长11.7%、8.9%和8.1%,增速分别比规模以上工业快5.5、2.7和1.9个百分点。新兴工业产品产量快速增长,铁路客车、微波终端机、新能源汽车、生物基化学纤维、智能电视、锂离子电池和集成电路分别增长183.0%、104.5%、40.1%、23.5%、18.7%、12.9%和9.7%。12月份,规模以上工业增加值同比增长5.7%,比上月加快0.3个百分点,环比增长0.54%。

The real growth of the total value added of the industrial enterprises above the designated size in 2018 was 6.2 percent, with slow yet stable growth. An analysis by types of ownership showed that the value added of the state holding enterprises was up by 6.2 percent; that of the collective enterprises, down by 1.2 percent; share-holding enterprises, up by 6.6 percent; and enterprises funded by foreign investors or investors from Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan, up by 4.8 percent. In terms of sectors, the value added of the mining grew by 2.3 percent, the manufacturing increased by 6.5 percent and the production and supply of electricity, thermal power, gas and water increased by 9.9 percent. The value added of the high-tech manufacturing, the strategic emerging industry and equipment manufacturing increased by 11.7 percent, 8.9 percent and 8.1 percent year on year respectively, 5.5 percentage points, 2.7 percentage points and 1.9 percentage points faster than that of the industrial enterprises above the designated size. The output of new emerging industrial products registered fast growth , the growth of passenger trains, microwave terminals, new energy automobiles, biologically-based chemical fibers, smart TV sets, lithium-ion batteries and integrated circuitsgrew by 183.0 percent, 104.5 percent, 40.1 percent, 23.5 percent, 18.7 percent, 12.9 percent and9.7 percent respectively. In December, the total value added of the industrial enterprises above the designated size was up by 5.7 percent year-on-year, 0.3 percentage point higher than that of last month, or up by 0.54 percent month-on-month.

1-11月份,全国规模以上工业企业实现利润总额61169亿元,同比增长11.8%;规模以上工业企业主营业务收入利润率为6.48%,比上年同期提高0.16个百分点。

From January to November, the profits made by industrial enterprises above the designated size stood at 6,116.9 billion yuan, up by 11.8 percent year-on-year. The profit rate of the principal activities of the industrial enterprises above the designated size was 6.48 percent, 0.16 percentage point higher than that of the same period last year.

三、服务业保持较快发展,持续处于景气区间

3. The Service Sector Sustained Fast Growth and Maintained within the Range of Expansion.

全年全国服务业生产指数比上年增长7.7%,保持较快增长。其中,信息传输、软件和信息技术服务业,租赁和商务服务业分别增长37.0%、10.1%。12月份,全国服务业生产指数同比增长7.3%,比上月提高0.1个百分点。1-11月份,规模以上服务业企业营业收入同比增长11.5%,其中,战略性新兴服务业、科技服务业和高技术服务业企业营业收入同比分别增长14.9%、15.0%和13.4%;规模以上服务业企业营业利润增长5.7%。

In 2018, the Index of Services Production increased by 7.7 percent over that of last year, maintained comparatively rapid growth. Specifically, information transmission, software and information technology services and rental and business services grew by 37.0 percent and 10.1 percent. In December, the Index of Services Production was up by 7.3 percent year-on-year, 0.1 percentage point higher than that of last month. From January to November, the business revenue of service enterprises above the designated size increased by 11.5 percent year-on-year. Specifically, the business revenue of strategic emerging services, science and technology services and high-tech services increased by 14.9 percent, 15.0 percent and 13.4 percent year on year respectively. The operating profits of service enterprises above the designated size increased by 5.7 percent.

12月份,服务业商务活动指数为52.3%,处于景气区间。铁路运输业、电信广播电视和卫星传输服务、货币金融服务、保险业和其他金融业等行业商务活动指数均位于60.0%以上的较高景气区间。从市场预期看,服务业业务活动预期指数为60.2%,比上月提高0.6个百分点。

In December, the Business Activity Index for services was 52.3 percent within the range of expectation. Specifically, the Business Activity Index for sectors like railway transportation, telecommunication, broadcast, television and satellite transmission services, monetary financial services, insurance and other financial services stayed within the expansion range of 60.0 percent and above. From the perspective of market expectation, the Business Activities Expectation Index for services was 60.2 percent, 0.6 percentage point higher than that of last month.

四、市场销售平稳较快增长,网上零售占比明显提高

4. Market Sales Witnessed Steady and Fast Growth and the Share of Online Retail Sales Increased Significantly.

全年社会消费品零售总额380987亿元,比上年增长9.0%,保持较快增长。其中,限额以上单位消费品零售额145311亿元,增长5.7%。按经营单位所在地分,城镇消费品零售额325637亿元,增长8.8%;乡村消费品零售额55350亿元,增长10.1%。按消费类型分,餐饮收入42716亿元,增长9.5%;商品零售338271亿元,增长8.9%。消费升级类商品较快增长,全年限额以上单位化妆品类、家用电器和音像器材类、通讯器材类商品零售额增速分别比限额以上社会消费品零售额增速高3.9、3.2和1.4个百分点。12月份,社会消费品零售总额同比增长8.2%,环比增长0.55%。

In 2018, the total retail sales of consumer goods reached 38,098.7 billion yuan, up by 9.0 percent over last year which kept fast growth. Specifically, the retail sales of consumer goods by enterprises above the designated size stood at 14,531.1 billion yuan, up by 5.7 percent. Analyzed by different areas, the retail sales in urban areas reached 32,563.7 billion yuan, up by 8.8 percent, and the retail sales in rural areas stood at 5,535.0 billion yuan, up by 10.1 percent. Grouped by consumption patterns, the income of catering industry was 4,271.6 billion yuan, up by 9.5 percent; and the retail sales of goods reached 33,827.1 billion yuan, up by 8.9 percent. The sales of upgraded consumer goods witnessed fast growth. Specifically, the growth of sales of cosmetics, household appliances and audio-video equipment, and telecommunication equipment by enterprises above the designated size were 3.9 percentage points, 3.2 percentage points and 1.4 percentage points higher than the growth of retail sales of consumer goods by enterprises above the designated size respectively. In December, the growth of total retail sales of consumer goods was 8.2 percent year-on-year, or 0.55 percent month-on-month.

全年全国网上零售额90065亿元,比上年增长23.9%。其中,实物商品网上零售额70198亿元,增长25.4%,占社会消费品零售总额的比重为18.4%,比上年提高3.4个百分点;非实物商品网上零售额19867亿元,增长18.7%。

In 2018, the online retail sales reached 9,006.5 billion yuan, an increase of 23.9 percent compared with that of last year. Specifically, the retail sales of physical goods were 7,019.8 billion yuan, up by 25.4 percent, accounting for 18.4 percent of the total retail sales of consumer goods, or 3.4 percentage points higher than that of last year. The online retail sales of non-physical goods were 1,986.7 billion yuan, up by 18.7 percent.

五、投资增长缓中趋稳,制造业投资和民间投资增速加快

5. The Investment Registered Slow but Stable Growth and the Growth of Investment in Manufacturing and Private Investment Accelerated.

全年全国固定资产投资(不含农户)635636亿元,比上年增长5.9%,增速比前三季度加快0.5个百分点。其中,民间投资394051亿元,增长8.7%,比上年加快2.7个百分点。分产业看,第一产业投资增长12.9%,比上年加快1.1个百分点;第二产业投资增长6.2%,加快3.0个百分点,其中制造业投资增长9.5%,加快4.7个百分点;第三产业投资增长5.5%,其中基础设施投资增长3.8%。高技术制造业、装备制造业投资比上年分别增长16.1%和11.1%,分别比制造业投资快6.6和1.6个百分点。12月份,固定资产投资与上月环比增长0.42%。全年全国房地产开发投资120264亿元,比上年增长9.5%。全国商品房销售面积171654万平方米,增长 1.3%,其中住宅销售面积增长2.2%。全国商品房销售额149973亿元,增长12.2%,其中住宅销售额增长14.7%。

In 2018, the investment in fixed assets (excluding rural households) was 63,563.6 billion yuan, growing by 5.9 percent over last year, and 0.5 percentage point higher than that of the first three quarters. Specifically, private investment reached 39,405.1 billion yuan, up by 8.7 percent, 2.7 percentage points higher than that of last year. The investment in the primary industry grew by 12.9 percent, 1.1 percentage points higher than that of last year; the secondary industry grew by 6.2 percent, 3.0 percentage points higher, among which the investment in manufacturing grew by 9.5 percent, 4.7 percentage points higher; and the tertiary industry grew by 5.5 percent, among which the investment in infrastructure grew by 3.8 percent. The investment in the high-tech manufacturing and equipment manufacturing went up by 16.1 percent and 11.1 percent, 6.6 percentage points and 1.6 percentage points higher than that of the investment in manufacturing. In December, the investment in fixed assets grew by 0.42 percent month-on-month. The total investment in real estate development in 2018 was 12,026.4 billion yuan, up by 9.5 percent over that of last year. The floor space of commercial buildings sold was 1,716.54 million square meters, up by 1.3 percent. Specifically, the floor space of residential buildings sold was up by 2.2 percent. The total sales of commercial buildings were 14,997.3 billion yuan, up by 12.2 percent, among which the sales of residential buildings were up by 14.7 percent.

六、进出口总额创历史新高,贸易结构不断优化

6. The Total Value of Imports and Exports Hit a Record High and the Trade Structure Continued to Optimize.

全年货物进出口总额305050亿元,比上年增长9.7%;贸易总量首次超过30万亿元,创历史新高;数量增长,结构优化,进出口稳中向好的目标较好实现。其中,出口164177亿元,增长7.1%;进口140874亿元,增长12.9%。进出口相抵,顺差为23303亿元,比上年收窄18.3%。一般贸易进出口占进出口总额的比重为57.8%,比上年提高1.4个百分点。机电产品出口增长7.9%,占出口总额的58.8%,比上年提高0.4个百分点。我国对主要贸易伙伴进出口全面增长,对欧盟、美国和东盟进出口分别增长7.9%、5.7%和11.2%;与“一带一路”沿线国家进出口增势良好,对“一带一路”沿线国家合计进出口增长13.3%,高出货物进出口总额增速3.6个百分点。全年规模以上工业企业实现出口交货值123932亿元,比上年增长8.5%。

The total value of imports and exports in 2018 was 30,505.0 billion yuan, up by 9.7 percent over that of last year, setting a new record by topping 30trillion yuan for the first time. The total imports and exports achieved the set goal of stable and positive development with increased volume and optimized structure. The total value of exports was 16,417.7 billion yuan, up by 7.1 percent; the total value of imports was 14,087.4 billion yuan, up by 12.9 percent. The trade balance was 2,330.3 billion yuan in surplus, down by 18.3 percent over that of last year. The value of general trade accounted for 57.8 percent of the total value of imports and exports, 1.4 percentage points higher than that of last year. The export of electrical and mechanical products increased by 7.9 percent, accounting for 58.8 percent of the total value of exports, 0.4 percentage point higher than that of last year. The imports and exports with main trade partners grew in all respects. Specifically, the imports and exports with European Union, United States and ASEAN went up by 7.9 percent, 5.7 percent and 11.2 percent respectively. The imports and exports with the countries along the Belt and Road gained momentum, increasing by 13.3 percent, 3.6 percentage points higher than the total imports and exports of goods of the year. The export delivery value of the industrial enterprises above the designated size reached 12,393.2 billion yuan, up by 8.5 percent over that of last year.

七、居民消费价格温和上涨,工业生产者价格涨幅回落

7. The Consumer Price Rose Mildly and the Growth of Producer Prices for Industrial Goods Declined.

全年居民消费价格比上年上涨2.1%,处于温和上涨区间,低于3%左右的预期目标。其中,城市上涨2.1%,农村上涨2.1%。分类别看,食品烟酒价格上涨1.9%,衣着上涨1.2%,居住上涨2.4%,生活用品及服务上涨1.6%,交通和通信上涨1.7%,教育文化和娱乐上涨2.2%,医疗保健上涨4.3%,其他用品和服务上涨1.2%。在食品烟酒价格中,粮食价格上涨0.8%,猪肉价格下降8.1%,鲜菜价格上涨7.1%。扣除食品和能源价格的核心CPI上涨1.9%,涨幅比上年回落0.3个百分点。12月份,居民消费价格同比上涨1.9%,环比与上月持平。全年工业生产者出厂价格比上年上涨3.5%,涨幅比上年回落2.8个百分点;12月份同比上涨0.9%,环比下降1.0%。全年工业生产者购进价格比上年上涨4.1%,12月份同比上涨1.6%,环比下降0.9%。

In 2018, the consumer price went up by 2.1 percent over last year, stayed within the range of mild growth, lower than the projected annual target of around 3 percent. Specifically, the price went up by 2.1 percent in urban areas and up by 2.1 percent in rural areas. Grouped by commodity categories, prices for food, tobacco and liquor went up by 1.9 percent; clothing up by 1.2 percent; residence up by 2.4 percent; household facilities, articles and services up by 1.6 percent; transportation and communications up by 1.7 percent; education, culture and recreation up by 2.2 percent; health care and medical services up by 4.3 percent; and miscellaneous goods and services up by 1.2 percent. In terms of food, tobacco and liquor prices, prices for grain went up by 0.8 percent, pork down by 8.1 percent and fresh vegetables up by 7.1 percent. Core CPI which excludes the price of food and energy went up by 1.9 percent, 0.3 percentage point lower than that of last year. In December, the consumer price went up by 1.9 percent year-on-year, and remained unchanged month-on-month. In 2018, the producer prices for industrial products went up by 3.5 percent year on year, 2.8 percentage points lower than that of last year; in December, the producer prices for industrial products went up by 0.9 percent year-on-year, or down by 1.0 percent month-on-month. In 2018, the purchasing prices for industrial producers were up by 4.1 percent over that of last year and in December, it was up by 1.6 percent year-on-year or down by 0.9 percent month-on-month.

八、就业形势保持稳定,城镇调查失业率下降

8. The Employment Maintained Stability and the Surveyed Unemployment Rate in Urban Areas Dropped.

全年城镇新增就业1361万人,比上年多增10万人,连续6年保持在1300万人以上,完成全年目标的123.7%。12月份,全国城镇调查失业率为4.9%,比上年同月下降0.1个百分点。2018年各月全国城镇调查失业率保持在4.8%-5.1%之间,实现了低于5.5%的预期目标。12月份,31个大城市城镇调查失业率为4.7%,比上年同月下降0.2个百分点。其中,全国主要就业人员群体25-59岁人口调查失业率为4.4%,与上月持平。年末全国就业人员77586万人,其中城镇就业人员43419万人。全年农民工总量28836万人,比上年增加184万人,增长0.6%。其中,本地农民工11570万人,增长0.9%;外出农民工17266万人,增长0.5%。农民工月均收入水平3721元,比上年增长6.8%。

In 2018, the newly increased employed people in urban areas totaled 13.61 million, an increase of 100 thuosand over that of last year, staying above 13 million for six years in a row, accomplishing 123.7 percent of the annual target. In December, the surveyed unemployment rate in urban areas was 4.9 percent, 0.1 percentage point lower than that of the same month last year. In 2018, the monthly urban surveyed unemployment rate stayed within the range of 4.8 percent to 5.1 percent, hitting the projected target of lowing than 5.5 percent. In December, the urban surveyed unemployment rate in 31 major cities was 4.7 percent, 0.2 percentage point lower than that of the same month last year. Specifically, the surveyed unemployment rate of major labor force aged from 25 to 59 was 4.4 percent, the same as that of last month. At the end of 2018, the total number of employed persons was 775.86 million and the number of urban employed persons was 434.19 million. The number of rural migrant workers reached 288.36 million, 1.84 million more than that of last year, up by 0.6 percent. Specifically, local migrant workers totaled 115.70 million, up by 0.9 percent; outside migrant workers totaled 172.66 million, up by 0.5 percent. The average monthly income of migrant workers was 3,721 yuan, a year-on-year growth of 6.8 percent.

九、居民收入消费稳定增长,农村居民收支增速快于城镇

9. Resident Income and Consumption Grew Steadily and the Growth of Income and Expenditure of Rural Residents Outpaced that of Urban Residents.

全年全国居民人均可支配收入28228元,比上年名义增长8.7%,扣除价格因素实际增长6.5%,快于人均GDP增速,与经济增长基本同步。按常住地分,城镇居民人均可支配收入39251元,比上年名义增长7.8%,扣除价格因素实际增长5.6%;农村居民人均可支配收入14617元,比上年名义增长8.8%,扣除价格因素实际增长6.6%。城乡居民人均收入倍差2.69,比上年缩小0.02。全国居民人均可支配收入中位数24336元,比上年名义增长8.6%。按全国居民五等份收入分组,低收入组人均可支配收入6440元,中等偏下收入组人均可支配收入14361元,中等收入组人均可支配收入23189元,中等偏上收入组人均可支配收入36471元,高收入组人均可支配收入70640元。

In 2018, the nationwide per capita disposable income of residents was 28,228 yuan, a nominal growth of 8.7 percent over that of last year, or a real increase of 6.5 percent after deducting price factors, higher than the growth rate of per capita GDP, and basically kept pace with economic growth. In terms of permanent residence, the per capita disposable income of urban households was 39,251 yuan, a nominal growth of 7.8 percent over that of last year, or a real growth of 5.6 percent after deducting price factors. The per capita disposable income of rural households was 14,617 yuan, a nominal growth of 8.8 percent year on year, or a real growth of 6.6 percent after deducting price factors. The per capita income of urban households was 2.69 times that of the rural households, 0.02 less than last year. The median of the nationwide per capita disposable income was 24,336 yuan, a nominal increase of 8.6 percent. Taking the per capita disposable income of nationwide households by income quintiles, that of the low-income group reached 6,440 yuan, the lower-middle-income group 14,361 yuan, the middle-income group 23,189 yuan, the upper-middle-income group 36,471 yuan, and the high-income group 70,640 yuan.

全年全国居民人均消费支出19853元,比上年名义增长8.4%,增速比上年加快1.3个百分点;扣除价格因素实际增长6.2%,比上年加快0.8个百分点。其中,城镇居民人均消费支出26112元,名义增长6.8%,比上年加快0.9个百分点;农村居民人均消费支出12124元,名义增长10.7%,比上年加快2.6个百分点。

In 2018, the nationwide per capita consumption expenditure of residents was 19,853 yuan, a nominal increase of 8.4 percent, 1.3 percentage points higher than that of last year, or a real increase of 6.2 percent after deducting price factors, 0.8 percentage point higher than that of last year. Specifically, the per capita consumption expenditure of urban households was 26,112 yuan, a nominal growth of 6.8 percent, 0.9 percentage point higher than that of last year; the per capita consumption expenditure of rural households was 12,124 yuan, a nominal growth of 10.7 percent, and 2.6 percentage points higher than that of last year.

十、供给侧结构性改革深入推进,经济转型升级态势持续

10. The Supply-Side Structural Reform was Advanced Further and Economy Kept its Momentum of Transformation and Upgrading.

“三去一降一补”重点任务扎实推进。去产能方面,钢铁、煤炭年度去产能任务提前完成。全国工业产能利用率为76.5%,其中黑色金属冶炼和压延加工业、煤炭开采和洗选业产能利用率分别为78.0%和70.6%,分别比上年提高2.2和2.4个百分点。去杠杆方面,企业资产负债率下降。11月末,规模以上工业企业资产负债率为56.8%,同比下降0.4个百分点;其中国有控股企业资产负债率为59.1%,下降1.6个百分点。去库存方面,年末全国商品房待售面积52414万平方米,比上年末下降11.0%。降成本方面,企业成本继续下降。1-11月份,规模以上工业企业每百元主营业务收入中的成本为84.19元,比上年同期减少0.21元。补短板方面,薄弱环节投资较快增长。全年生态保护和环境治理业、农业投资分别增长43.0%和15.4%,分别快于全部投资37.1和9.5个百分点。

The major tasks of cutting overcapacity, reducing inventory, deleveraging, lowering costs and strengthening weak areas were enhanced firmly. As for cutting overcapacity, the annual tasks of cutting overcapacity in the industries of steel and coal were completed ahead of the schedule. The national industrial capacity utilization rate reached 76.5 percent. Specifically, the capacity utilization rates of smelting and pressing of ferrous metals and the mining and washing of coal were 78.0 percent and 70.6 percent respectively, 2.2 percentage points and 2.4 percentage points higher than last year. As for deleveraging, the asset-liability ratio of enterprises declined. At the end of November, the asset-liability ratio of industrial enterprises above the designated size was 56.8 percent, 0.4 percentage point lower than the same period last year, among which that of state holding enterprises was 59.1 percent, 1.6 percentage points lower. In terms of reducing inventory, by the end of 2018, the floor space of commercial buildings for sale was 524.14 million square meters, down by 11.0 percent over that at the end of 2017. In terms of lowering costs, the cost of enterprises continued to drop. For the first eleven months, the cost for per-hundred-yuan turnover of principal activities of the industrial enterprises above the designated size was 84.19 yuan, 0.21 yuan less compared with that of the same period last year. As for strengthening the weak areas, investment in weak areas grew rapidly. In 2018, the investment in ecological protection and treatment of environmental pollution and agriculture went up by 43.0 percent and 15.4 percent respectively, or 37.1 percentage points and 9.5 percentage points higher than that of the total investment.

经济结构继续优化。全年第三产业增加值占国内生产总值的比重为52.2%,比上年提高0.3个百分点,高于第二产业11.5个百分点;对国内生产总值增长的贡献率为59.7%,比上年提高0.1个百分点。消费作为经济增长主动力作用进一步巩固,最终消费支出对国内生产总值增长的贡献率为76.2%,比上年提高18.6个百分点,高于资本形成总额43.8个百分点。居民消费升级提质。全国居民恩格尔系数为28.4%,比上年下降0.9个百分点。全年全国居民人均消费支出中,服务性消费占比为44.2%,比上年提高1.6个百分点。绿色发展扎实推进。万元国内生产总值能耗比上年下降3.1%,实现了下降3%以上的预期目标。能源消费结构继续优化。全年天然气、水电、核电、风电等清洁能源消费量占能源消费总量的比重比上年提高约1.3个百分点。

The economic structure continued to optimize. In 2018, the contribution of the value added of the tertiary industry to total GDP was 52.2 percent, 0.3 percentage point higher than that of last year, 11.5 percentage points higher than that of the secondary industry, contributing 59.7 percent to GDP growth, 0.1 percentage point higher than that of last year. Consumption as the major driving force for economic growth was further strengthened with final consumption expenditure contributing 76.2 percent to GDP growth, 18.6 percentage points higher than that of last year, and 43.8 percentage points higher than the gross capital formation. Household consumption was upgraded and improved with quality. The Engel’s Coefficient was 28.4 percent, 0.9 percentage point lower than that of last year. In 2018, service consumption took up 44.2 percent of nationwide per capita consumption expenditure of residents, 1.6 percentage points higher than that of 2017. Green development was promoted steadily. The energy consumption per 10,000 yuan worth of GDP went down by 3.1 percent over last year, achieving the target of dropping by 3 percent. The energy consumption structure continued to optimize. The share of consumption of clean energy such as natural gas, hydropower, nuclear power and wind power in total energy consumption was 1.3 percentage points higher than that of last year.

十一、人口总量平稳增长,城镇化率持续提高

11. Population Increased Steadily with Continuous Growth of Urbanization Rate.

年末中国大陆总人口(包括31个省、自治区、直辖市和中国人民解放军现役军人,不包括香港、澳门特别行政区和台湾省以及海外华侨人数)139538万人,比上年末增加530万人。全年出生人口1523万人,人口出生率为10.94‰;死亡人口993万人,人口死亡率为7.13‰;人口自然增长率为3.81‰。从性别结构看,男性人口71351万人,女性人口68187万人,总人口性别比为104.64(以女性为100)。从年龄构成看,16至59周岁的劳动年龄人口89729万人,占总人口的比重为64.3%;60周岁及以上人口24949万人,占总人口的17.9%,其中65周岁及以上人口16658万人,占总人口的11.9%。从城乡结构看,城镇常住人口83137万人,比上年末增加1790万人;乡村常住人口56401万人,减少1260万人;城镇人口占总人口比重(城镇化率)为59.58%,比上年末提高1.06个百分点。全国人户分离人口(即居住地和户口登记地不在同一个乡镇街道且离开户口登记地半年以上的人口)2.86亿人,比上年末减少450万人;其中流动人口2.41亿人,比上年末减少378万人。

By the end of 2018, the total population of mainland China was 1,395.38 million (including the population of 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities, and servicemen in CPLA; but not including residents in Hong Kong SAR, Macao SAR and Taiwan Province and overseas Chinese), an increase of 5.30 million over that at the end of 2017. In 2018, the number of births was 15.23 million and the birth rate was 10.94 per thousand; the number of deaths was 9.93 million with a death rate of 7.13 per thousand; the natural growth rate was 3.81 per thousand. In terms of gender, the male population was 713.51 million, and female population was 681.87 million; the sex ratio of the total population was 104.64 (the female is 100). In terms of age composition, population at the working age of 16-59 was 897.29 million, accounting for 64.3 percent of the total population; population aged 60 and over was 249.49 million, which was 17.9 percent of the total population; population aged 65 and over was 166.58 million, accounting for 11.9 percent of the total population. In terms of urban-rural structure, the permanent residents in urban areas was 831.37 million, an increase of 17.90 million over that at the end of last year; and the permanent residents in rural areas was 564.01 million, a decrease of 12.60 million. The proportion of the urban population to the total population (urbanization rate) was 59.58 percent, 1.06 percentage points higher than that at the end of 2017. The population who reside in areas other than their household registration and have been away from there for over 6 months reached 286 million, which was 4.50 million less than that at the end of 2017. Specifically, the floating population stood at 241 million, 3.78 million less than that at the end of 2017.

总的来看,2018年国民经济继续运行在合理区间,实现了总体平稳、稳中有进。同时也要看到,经济运行稳中有变、变中有忧,外部环境复杂严峻,经济面临下行压力,前进中的问题必须有针对性地解决。2019年,我们要以习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想为指导,继续抓住并用好重要战略机遇期,坚持稳中求进工作总基调,坚持新发展理念,坚持推动高质量发展,坚持以供给侧结构性改革为主线,继续打好三大攻坚战,着力激发市场活力、需求潜力和内生动力,统筹推进稳增长、促改革、调结构、惠民生、防风险工作,宏观政策要强化逆周期调节,结构性政策要强化体制机制建设,社会政策要强化兜底保障功能,保持经济持续健康发展和社会大局稳定,为全面建成小康社会收官打下决定性基础,向中华人民共和国成立70周年献礼!谢谢大家。

Generally speaking, in 2018 the national economy performed within an appropriate range, maintaining the general stable momentum by pursuing progress while ensuring stability.However, at the same time we should also be aware that there are concerns over the changes amid the stable economic performance, and the external environment is complicated and sever, the economy still faces downward pressure. The problems emerged in the course of development should be addressed specifically. In 2019, taking Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era as the guideline, we should seize and make the most of the opportunities in the important strategic period, follow the general working guideline of making progress while maintaining stability, stick to the new development philosophy, promote high-quality development, and focus on the supply-side structural reform. We should make continuous efforts to win the “three critical battles”, endeavor to stimulate market vitality, demand potential and internal dynamism, take coordinated steps to ensure steady economic growth, advance reform, make structural adjustment, improve living standards and guard against risk. The macro policies should enhance the countercyclical adjustment, the structural policies should focus on institutional construction and social policies should guarantee the basic line of living standards. We should also promote the sustainable and healthy development of economy and protect the stability of the society which will lay a sound foundation for the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects, and celebrate the 70th anniversary of the founding of the People’s Republic of China!

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